Modern medicine has made remarkable achievements in safeguarding people’s life and health, however, it is increasingly found that in the face of complex diseases, selective targeting single target is often difficult to produce a comprehensive rehabilitation effect, and is prone to induce drug resistance, toxic side effects. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history of clinical application, and its clinical value in the treatment of complex diseases such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, digestive diseases, skin diseases, rheumatism and immunity diseases, and adjuvant treatment of tumors has been proven to have obvious advantages. However, its modern research is relatively lagging behind, and in the face of the aging society and the characteristics of the modern disease spectrum, the traditional knowledge-driven research paradigm seems to be stuck in a bottleneck and difficult to make greater breakthroughs. Focusing on the key issues of TCM development in the new era, the clinical value-oriented strategy becomes to be a new research paradigm of TCM inheritance and innovation development, and dominant diseases would be the focus of the TCM inheritance and innovation development, which has been highly valued in recent years by the TCM academia and the relevant national management departments. Based on the clinical value, a series of policies are formulated for the selection and evaluation of the TCM dominant diseases (TCMDD), and exploratory researches about the clinical efficacy characteristics, the modern scientific connotation interpretation were carried out. The clinical value-oriented research paradigm of TCMDD inheritance and innovation development has been initially formed, which is characterized by strong policy support as the guarantee, systematic and standardized selection and evaluation methods as the driving force, scientific and effective research on internal mechanisms as the expansion, and effective clinical guidelines and principles as the transformation, which is of great value in promoting the high-quality development of the industries and undertaking of TCM. In this paper, the main policy support, selection and evaluation methods, therapeutic effect characterization, and modern scientific connotation research strategies of TCMDD in recent years have been comprehensively sorted out, with a view to providing the healthy and benign development of the research on TCMDD.