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    2023,15(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC), the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core has set an action plan for the Construction of a Healthy China Program, insisting on putting people's health in the strategic position of prioritizing development. As an important part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) culture in China, food-medicines, the stuff consumed both as food and medicine, are one of the material foundations to prevent and treat chronic diseases and manage health ahead of sick, and an important carrier for China to promote the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and participate in global health governance. To enrich the knowledge system of food-medicine through cross-cultural exchanges between the East and the West, and to promote the research progress of food-medicine are of critical importance in the context of the current global pandemic of COVID-19, since it is a profound understanding of the spirit of General Secretary Xi Jinping's important speech and a practice of giving priority to people's health in the strategic position of development, which helps to provide strong support for the comprehensive promotion of the Healthy China strategy and human well-being (Huang et al., 2022). 1.Recognition of "medicine and food homology" in traditional Chinese medicine The medicine and food are of the same origin and have existed since ancient times. According to data records, the concept of "medicine and food homology" has a history of more than 3000 years. In the long primitive society, Chinese ancestors gradually divided some natural products into food, medicine and poison. In the slave society, with the development of productive forces, cooking techniques gradually took shape. Soup and liquid soup appeared, soup medicine and wine were invented, and then distilled wine was made. Vinegar, soy sauce, lobster sauce, etc. produced on the basis of fermentation enrich the medical content (Shan et al., 2015). The understanding of "medicine and food homology" should be viewed from two aspects. First, TCM and food are produced in the same way, and second, their sources are the same. The so-called production method of TCM and food is the same, which means that the production of TCM, like food, originates from our ancestors' life practice for thousands of years, and is the achievement of experience in the long-term struggle with nature and disease. After innumerable attempts and experiments, ancestors had a second understanding of animals and plants, that is, the original concept of TCM. Therefore, "tasting" is a traditional way to accumulate knowledge and experience of TCM (Liu et al., 2015). In TCM medicine and food are of the same origin. If they are complementary and mutually used, there is no strict boundary between medicine and food. It is a remarkable feature of TCM to combine the two to maintain health (Liu, 2018). 2.Important value of food-medicine In recent years, the CPC Central Committee and the State Council have attached great importance to the development of food-medicine, nutrition and health industry. In 2016, the State Council issued the Outline of the Strategic Plan on the Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine (2016-2030), making the development of TCM a national strategy. In March 2022, the General Office of the State Council issued the 14th Five-Year Plan for the Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine, which proposed to build a high-quality and efficient TCM service system, and enrich the supply of TCM health products, and expand the TCM health tourism market. As an inseparable part of the development of TCM, food-medicine industry has become a powerful starting point for the development of TCM. With the major changes in the geographical and social environment, the basic health needs of human beings have changed from disease treatment to disease prevention, health care and other life-cycle health services. The current trend of high incidence of chronic diseases and the aging of the population have become the challenges of building a healthy China and a common challenge to maintain human health. The rehabilitation of chronic diseases and delaying aging usually require long-term conditioning (Huang et al., 2022). Studies have shown that aging-related diseases can be prevented through diets. Flavonoids and other natural compounds in some food-medicines usually have the functions of enhancing immunity, relieving fatigue, improving sleep, preventing and treating various chronic diseases and anti-aging (Tian et al., 2021; Lu et al., 2022). Moreover, through guiding scientific diets, food-medicines will play an active role in delaying and reducing onsets, thus to save limited health resources and medical insurance resources, as well as to cope with the accelerated process of social aging (Downer et al., 2020). According to incomplete statistics, there are more than 3,000 medicinal and edible plants in major countries in the world (Lim, 2012). More than 1,200 of them have been found in China (Zhang, 2021), which are used as medicines, health products, food for special medical purposes, new food raw materials, medicinal diets, cosmetic products, etc. As an important part of TCM and Chinese food culture, food-medicines are unique health resources and huge economic resources. They are also indispensable "components" for the construction of a healthy China and the development of the big health industry (Huang et al., 2022). 3. Challenges in the exchange and trade of food-medicine between East and West High-quality food-medicine products are insufficiently supplied in China, e.g., the legal list of food-medicines is narrow, and imported registered or filed products are seldom available. Meanwhile, food-medicines often lack scientific evidence, and the research input is low, and they are not competitive in international trade. Facing the country's medium and long-term development, China's current list of food-medicines, laws and regulations, and scientific research capacity have been unable to adapt to the needs of the new international and domestic economic dual-cycle situation, leading to increasing barriers in cross-cultural exchanges between China and the West on food-medicines (Huang et al., 2022). There are obvious differences in the knowledge system and the habits of food-medicine between the East and the West (Yao et al., 2023). Due to the different historical and cultural backgrounds of the East and the West, as well as the huge biological and cultural differences in the geographical environment, human physique and resources in the environment, the habits of people on food-medicine also have obvious differences. They have established their own cognitive standards and knowledge systems, in which the same food-medicine species or closely related species are different in usage, purpose and consumption. Western food and drug experts have ever evaluated the 109 varieties (Containing nine varieties that are being piloted) of "both food and Chinese herbal medicines" in China. The results showed that only 53 varieties were also used as health food, spices or medicines in Western countries, in which Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge., Lonicera japonica Thunb. etc. were excluded (Heinrich et al., 2022), and certain species that are shared were also different in usage and uses. For example, Ginkgo biloba L., the seed of which is commonly used in China, but the leaf and leaf extracts are commonly used in Europe; another example is Crataegi Fructus (Shanzha in Chinese), which is commonly used in China to promote digestion, while Europe is mainly used for cardiovascular system conditioning (Heinrich et al., 2022). In addition, the top 40 items in the 2020 best-selling list of plant-derived dietary supplements in the United States, only 14 of which are found commonly used in China (Smith et al., 2021). Communication in food-medicine has been increasingly hindered by the different regulatory standards of Eastern and Western. Influenced by the concept of "medicine and food homology" that has been passed down for thousands of years, especially the concept of TCM health, the concept of food is often closely related to medicine according to the definition of food-medicine in China. In Western countries, the understanding of medicines and food, as well as food-medicine, is relatively unrelated. In other countries, food-medicines are mainly classified and managed as dietary supplements, functional foods, etc. Thus, the same items in different countries or regions are quite different in the regulations and management methods (Heinrich et al, 2022). For example, Dioscoreae Rhizoma (Shanyao in Chinese), Lilii Bulbus (Baihe in Chinese) and Jujubae Fructus (Dazao in Chinese) are commonly dual-used items in China, but not in most countries in the world; Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma (Renshen in Chinese) can be managed as a health food, food and drug substance, and Chinese medicinal material in China, while it is managed as a dietary supplement in Europe and the United States; Hypericum leaves can be used as dietary supplements or registered herbal medicines in Europe and America, but only as medicinal materials in China. Ashwagandha, known as "Indian ginseng", is very popular in the international market, but has not been approved for import in China (Wang et al., 2021). There are certain obstacles in the exchange between the East and the West. In addition, a large proportion of China's raw material extracts are used for export, but they can only occupy the low value-added market at the front of the industrial chain, and some laws and regulations are not perfect (Dietary and Nutritional Supplements Professional Committee of China Chamber of Commerce for Import and Export of Medicines and Health Products, 2021). In response to the above issues, we put forward a series of suggestions. First of all, to strengthen investment in research, to improve the level of scientific research and health service capacity, to strengthen domestic and international exchanges and trade, to strengthen the "economic double cycle" power, and to comprehensively promote the improvement of people's health. 4. Path to promote communication of food-medicine between East and West Eastern and Western countries have a tradition of using herbs in their diets to maintain health. As Hippocrates, the ancient Greek medical scientist emphasized the important philosophical and medical basis of the diet in maintaining health and preventing disease (Witkamp & Van Norren, 2018), which provides a broad scope for the interconnection communication space of countries (Heinrich et al., 2022). In the cross-cultural exchange between China and the West, we can start from the following aspects to enrich the knowledge system of food-medicine.. We must deepen cooperation in food-medicine between the government and international organizations. Doubts in food-medicines between governments and international organizations need a gradual elimination by adopting more authoritative media channels, in order to obtain scientific recognition of food-medicine to the greatest extent possible. Food-medicine must be incorporated into the mainstream health systems of more countries by making full use of existing bilateral and multilateral trade cooperation agreements, on the basis of enhancing cultural self-confidence and inheriting China's excellent food-medicine culture and ideological connotations. An international platform must be built for academic exchanges of medicine and food homology. We must improve food-medicine in the level of scientific research as a whole by strengthening capital investment, and carrying out investigation, analysis and evaluation of the literature, clinical and application of food-medicine, and accelerating the construction of the academic system and discipline system. We must make full use of the international cooperation institutions and joint laboratories established by China, such as the China-ASEAN Traditional Medicine International Cooperation Joint Laboratory, to enhance the dialogue and exchanges between China and BRI partner countries, international organizations and institutions, in order to promote cultural identity and scientific cooperation of food-medicine and shape more universally agreed discourse system. Standardized management standards for food-medicine must be formulated. It is necessary to improve the system of laws and regulations related to food-medicines. In the process of revision of management measures and unification of nouns, attention should be paid to the connection with relevant foreign names, so as to make the terms related to food-medicines more standardized and facilitate international communication, trade and exchange, and import and export management. We must actively participate in the construction of international standardization of food-medicine, establish a mutually recognized standard system for raw materials and products of food-medicine, and reduce communication barriers between different regions resulting from management differences. The development of food-medicine industries must be promoted. It is necessary to encourage enterprises to develop various related products using food-medicine as raw materials, improve the ability of deep processing of products, establish more influential national brands of food-medicine products, and enhance the voice of Chinese enterprises in international trade and the market share of the corresponding products. We must promote and extend the application fields of food-medicine, improve the level of food and environmental safety, expand the biological resources of food-medicine, and discover more types of food-medicine. High value-added food-medicine products must be effectively promoted to enter the global market. In the process of strengthening the interconnection and interoperability of various countries, we must expand the imported varieties of food-medicine leading to enhancing the power of the "double economic cycle". In addition, we must actively promote the BRI, and give full play to the important role of food-medicine products in the construction of the countries, regions and human health communities along the Belt and Road, and explore new opportunities in the cross-cultural exchange of food-medicine products.
    2023,15(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Food-medicine products are important materials for daily health management and are increasingly popular in the global heathy food market. However, because of the biocultural difference, food-medicine knowledge may differ among regions, which hinders the global sharing of such health strategies. Aim at bridging the food-medicine knowledge in the East and West, this study traced the historical roots of food and medicine continuum of the East and West, which was followed by a cross-cultural assessment on the importance of food-medicine products of China, thereafter, the current legislative terms for food-medicine products were studied using an international survey. The results show that the food and medicine continuum in the East and West have their historical roots in the traditional medicines since antiquity, and the food-medicine knowledge in the East and West differs substantially; although the food-medicine products have common properties, their legislative terms are diverse globally; with proofs of traditional uses and scientific evidence, food-medicine products are possible for cross-cultural communication. Finally, we recommend facilitating the cross-cultural communication of the food-medicine knowledge in the East and West, thus to make the best use of the traditional health wisdom in the globe.
    2023,15(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Benincasae Exocarpium (BE, Dongguanpi in Chinese), as the dried outer pericarp of Benincasa hispida (wax gourd) in Cucurbitaceae family, is one of traditional Chinese medicines with the same origin as medicine and food. Up to now, 43 compounds were reported from BE, including flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, phenolic acids, soluble fiber and carbohydrates. Modern pharmacological studies and clinical practice showed that BE has diuretic, hypolipidemic effects, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, antibacterial, and other effects. The folk uses, functional factors, pharmacological activities, patents and clinical applications of BE were reviewed in this paper. In addition, the paper also discussed the current problems for the further studies. The information summarized in this paper provides valuable clues for the comprehensive utilization of medicine and food resources and gives a scientific basis for the development of medicinal plants of BE.
    2023,15(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Traditional herbal medicine (THM) is a significant division of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that plays an important role in maintaining health and disease prevention. WHO has consistently highlighted the significance of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine in human healthcare. Most people in Eastern Asia will start their day with a cup of tea. The tea provides a nourishing effect, and it has become an inevitable part of life. There are several types of tea, like black tea, green tea, oolong tea, white tea, and herbal tea. Besides the refreshments, it is important to consume beverages that benefit health. One such alternative is a healthy probiotic drink called kombucha, a fermented tea. Kombucha tea is aerobically fermented by infusing sweetened tea with a cellulose mat/ pellicle called SCOBY (symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast). Kombucha is a source of bioactive compounds that include organic acids and amino acids, vitamins, probiotics, sugars, polyphenols, and antioxidants. Currently, studies on kombucha tea and SCOBY are gaining attention for their remarkable properties and applications in the food and health industries. The review gives an overview of the production, fermentation, microbial diversity, and metabolic products of kombucha. The possible implications for human health are also discussed.
    2023,15(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Tea is a famous beverage that is produced from leaves of Camellia sinensis. Amongst the six major tea categories in China, dark tea is the only one that involves microbial fermentation in the manufacturing process, which contributes unique flavors and functions for the tea. In the recent decade, the reports about the biofunctions of dark teas have increased rapidly. Therefore it may be the proper time to consider dark tea as one potential homology of medicine and food. In this viewpoint, our current understanding of the chemical constituents, biological activities and possible health beneficial effects of dark teas were introduced. Some future directions and challenges to the development perspectives of dark teas were also discussed.
    2023,15(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective: Agarwood—a resinous wood produced by Aquilaria plants in response to injury or artificial induction—is a valuable medicinal and fragrance resource. Whole-Tree Agarwood-Inducing Technique (Agar-WIT) has been widely used to produce agarwood. However, the time-dependent characteristics of agarwood formation induced by Agar-WIT are yet to be clarified. To promote technologically efficient utilization and upgradation of Agar-WIT, the dynamic process and mechanism of agarwood formation were analyzed for one year. Methods: Agarwood formation percentage, barrier layer microscopic properties, extract levels, compound level, and characteristic chromatograms of agarwood were examined by referring to the Chinese Pharmacopeia (2020 version). Results: Agar-WIT could maintain a high percentage of agarwood formation over one year compared with that of healthy plants. Alcohol-soluble extract and agarotetrol levels showed fluctuating cyclic changes with peaks occurring first during the fifth and sixth months, and subsequently in the 11th month. Aquilaria trees subjected to Agar-WIT treatment for 1?12 months showed significant characteristics of a dynamic agarwood formation process. The barrier layer began to appear in the fourth month after treatment. Alcohol-soluble extractive levels in agarwood formed in the second month, and thereafter, exceeded 10.0%, and agarotetrol in agarwood produced after four months or later, exceeded 0.10%. Conclusion: According to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, alcohol-soluble extractive levels in agarwood should not be less than 10.0% and agarotetrol level should exceed 0.10%. After four months of Agar-WIT treatment, the formed agarwood theoretically met these standards and was suitable for developed and utilization. However, the optimal harvest time was found to be the 11th month, followed by the sixth month after Agar-WIT treatment. Therefore, Agar-WIT resulted in swift agarwood formation and stable accumulation of alcohol-soluble extracts and agarotetrol. Thus, this method is efficient for large-scale cultivation of Aquilaria sinensis to produce agarwood and provide raw materials for the agarwood medicinal industry.
    2023,15(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective: Biofertilizers are reliable alternatives to chemical fertilizers due to various advantages. However, the effect of biofertilizers on Salvia miltiorrhiza yield and quality and?the possible mechanisms remain little known. Here,?an experiment was conducted in S. miltiorrhiza field treated with two kinds of biofertilizers including Bacillus?and microalgae. Methods: A field experiment was conducted on S. miltiorrhiza of one year old. The biofertilizers were applied at six treatments: (i) control check, CK; (ii) microalgae, VZ; (iii) Bacillus, TTB; (iv) microalgae + Bacillus (1:1), VTA; (v) microalgae + Bacillus (0.5:1), VTB; (vi) microalgae + Bacillus (1:0.5), VTC. Here, high-throughput sequencing, ICP-MS and UPLC were employed to systematically characterize changes of microbial diversity and structure composition, heavy metals content and bioactive compounds, respectively. Results: Compared to CK, root biomass increased by 29.31%?60.39% (P < 0.001). Meanwhile, bioactive compounds were higher than CK after the application of the biofertilizers, peculiarly in TTB and VTB. However, the content of Pb contents in roots significantly reduced by 46.03% and 37.58% respectively in VTC and TTB (P < 0.05). VTA application notably increased the available nitrogen content by 53.03% (P < 0.05), indicating the improvement of soil fertility. Significantly, bacterial and fungal Chao I diversity indices showed an increasing trend with biofertilizer application (P < 0.05), and biofertilizer amendment enriched the rhizosphere soil with beneficial microorganisms that have abilities on promoting plant growth (Achromobacter and Penicillium), adsorbing heavy metal (Achromobacter and Beauveria), controlling plant pathogen (Plectosphaerella, Lechevalieria, Sorangium, Phlebiopsis and Beauveria) and promoting the accumulation of metabolites (Beauveria and Phoma). Conclusion: Bacillus and microalgae biofertilizers improved the quality and biomass of S. miltiorrhiza by altering microbial communities in soil.
    2023,15(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective: The content of saikosaponins in genus Bupleurum is increased with numbers of lateral root, but the genetic mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aims to identify the heme oxygenase (HO) gene family members of B. chinense and B. scorzonerifolium, and assess their role in the root development in Bupleurum. Methods: The gene sequences of HO family were selected from iso-seq full-length transcriptome data of B. chinense and B. scorzonerifolium, and were analyzed in physicochemical properties, conserved domains, motifs and phylogenetic relationship. In addition, the expression patterns of HO gene in different parts of roots were compared via transcriptome sequencing and qRT-PCR in the two species. Results: Five Bupleurum HO genes (BcHO1-BcHO5) belonging to the HO1 subfamily were identified from the transcriptome data, whereas the HO2 subfamily member was not identified. The expression levels of BcHO1 and BcHO2 were significantly higher than those of other three HO members in the transcriptome analysis. In addition, the expression profile of BcHO1 showed consistency with lateral root development in B. chinense and B. scorzonerifolium. Conclusion: Hos might participate in the auxin-induced morphogenesis of lateral roots. The yield of saikosaponin may be improved by manipulating expression of these genes.
    2023,15(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective: This paper focused on the geographical discrimination of Cyclocarya paliurus tea for origin traceability based on multielement analysis by ICP-OES and chemometrics multivariate. Methods: In this study, eleven trace element concentrations were determined by ICP-OES and processed by multivariate statistical analysis. Results: Based on ANOVA, the mean concentrations of 10 elements except Co differed significantly among six origins. Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that 11 pairs of elements have a positive significant correlation and 12 pairs have a negative significant correlation. The geographical origins were effectively differentiated using the eleven elements combined with PCA. And the S-LDA model offered a 100% differentiation rate. Conclusion: The overall results suggested that the combination of multielement analysis by ICP-OES and chemometrics multivariate could trace the geographical origins of tea. And the paper can provide reference for quality control and quality evaluation of C. paliurus in the future.
    2023,15(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective: Ginsenosides, polysaccharides and phenols, the main active ingredients in Panax ginseng, are not different significantly in content between 3?5 years old of ginsengs called Yuan ginseng and more than ten years old ones called Shizhu ginseng. The responsible chemical compounds cannot fully explain difference in efficacy between them. According to reports in Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (Jinyinhua in Chinese) and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (Gancao in Chinese), microRNA may play a role in efficacy, so we identified microRNAs in P. ginseng at the different growth years and analyzed their target genes. Methods: Using high-throughput sequencing, the RNA-Seq, small RNA-Seq and degradome databases of P. ginseng were constructed. The differentially expressed microRNAs was identified by qRT-PCR. Results: A total of 63,875 unigenes and 24,154,579 small RNA clean reads were obtained from the roots of P. ginseng. From these small RNAs, 71 miRNA families were identified by bioinformatics target prediction software, including 34 conserved miRNAs, 37 non-conserved miRNA families, as well as 179 target genes of 17 known miRNAs. Through degradome sequencing and computation, we finally verified 13 targets of eight miRNAs involved in transcription, energy metabolism, biological stress and disease resistance, suggesting the significance of miRNAs in the development of P. ginseng. Consistently, major miRNA targets exhibited tissue specificity and complexity in expression patterns. Conclusion: Differential expression microRNAs were found in different growth years of ginsengs (Shizhu ginseng and Yuan ginseng), and the regulatory roles and functional annotations of miRNA targets in P. ginseng need further investigation.
    2023,15(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study the protective activities of the dietary malate esters derivatives of Bletilla striata against SiO2 nanoparticles-induced A549 cell lines and its mechanism action. Methods: The components were isolated and elucidated by spectroscopic methods such as 1D NMR and 2D NMR. And MTT assays was used to tested these components on the A549 cell survival rates and ROS or proteins levels were detected by Western blotting. Results: A new glucosyloxybenzyl 2-isobutylmalate (a malate ester derivative), along with 31 known compounds were isolated and identified from n-BuOH extract of EtOH extract of B. striata. Among them, compounds 3, 4, 11, 12 and 13 possessed noteworthy proliferative effects for damaged cells, with ED50 of 14.0, 13.1, 3.7, 11.6 and 11.5 μmol/L, respectively, compared to positive control resveratrol (ED50, 14.7 μmol/L). Militarine (8) prominently inhibited the intracellular ROS level, and increased the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream genes (HO-1 and γ-GCSc). Furthermore, Nrf2 activation mediates the interventional effects of compound 8 against SiO2 nanoparticles (nm SiO2)-induced lung injury. Moreover, treatment with compound 8 significantly reduced lung inflammation and oxidative stress in nm SiO2-instilled mice. Molecular docking experiment suggested that 8 bound stably to the HO-1 protein by hydrogen bond interactions. Conclusion: The dietary malate esters derivatives of B. striata could significantly increase the viability of nm SiO2-induced A549 cells and decrease the finer particles-induced cell damages. Militarine is especially promising compound for chemoprevention of lung cancer induced by nm SiO2 through activation of Nrf2 pathway.
    2023,15(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective To examine the protective effects of hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) against the senescence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) induced by D-galactose (D-gal) in vitro, and investigate the potential mechanism involved. Methods Grouping experiment, Normal control (NC) group: conventional culture with complete medium; Senescence group: MSCs were cultured for 48 h with complete medium containing 10 g/L D-gal; HSYA group: on the basis of senescence induction, HSYA with the suitable concentration was used to protect MSCs. The key experimental indices associated with oxidative stress, inflammatory response, cell senescence, proliferation and apoptosis were measured through chemical colorimetry, β-galactosidase staining, EdU incorporation and flow cytometry, respectively. The relative quantity (RQ) of proteins related closely to cell proliferation, apoptosis, and NF-κB signaling were measured by Western blotting. Results As compared with Senescence group, treatment with HSYA (120 mg/L) effectively ameliorated the adverse situation of MSCs. Oxidation stress and inflammation along with D-Gal induction was dramatically alleviated in MSCs; The β-Gal-positive staining indicated that MSC senescence was significantly mitigated; The proliferative capability of MSCs was significantly increased by up-regulating PCNA and inhibiting p16 expression; The anti-apoptotic effect on MSCs was exerted by down-regulating the RQ of cleaved Caspase-3 and Bax; The activity of NF-κB signaling in MSCs was notably suppressed through inhibiting phosphorylation of IKKβ and p65. Conclusion HSYA (120 mg/L) significantly delayed the D-Gal-induced senescence process in MSCs through attenuating inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress, and suppressing the activity of NF-κB signaling.
    2023,15(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective: Chronic inflammation plays a fatal role in tumor metastasis. Pterostilbene (PTE) is a natural dimethylated analogue of resveratrol with anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of PTE on inflammation-associated metastasis and explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung inflammation and melanoma metastasis models were established in mice. After PTE treatment for four weeks, the organ index, histological changes, proinflammatory cytokines, and the expression and activity of neutrophil elastase (NE), a biomarker of neutrophil influx in the lungs, were analysed. Additionally, direct effects of PTE on NE-induced B16 cell migration were explored in wound healing and Transwell assays, and the expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers were also detected. Results: PTE obviously attenuated the LPS-induced metastasis of circulatory B16 cells to lungs by reducing the number of metastatic nodules on the lung surfaces and the lung weight/body weight ratio. PTE treatment also significantly reduced LPS-activated increase levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 in the lungs of tumor-bearing mice. In addition, increased expression and enzyme activity of NE and decreased expression of TSP-1 were observed, and these were blocked by PTE. In vitro, PTE at concentrations without cytotoxicity also markedly suppressed NE-triggered B16 cell migration, prevented NE-induced TSP-1 proteolysis and reversed the expression of vimentin, N-cadherin and E-cadherin. Conclusion: PTE could block inflammation-enhanced tumor metastasis, and the underlying mechanism might be associated with the inhibition of NE-mediated TSP-1 degradation.
    2023,15(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective: Gentamicin (GM) is a commonly used aminoglycoside antibiotic, however, renal toxicity has limited its usage. The present study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of Cistanche deserticola on GM-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methods: The nephrotoxicity in rats was induced by intraperitoneal administration of GM (100 mg/kg) for 10 consecutive days. Glomerular filtration rate, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and kidney histopathology were detected to assess the GM-induced nephrotoxicity. The oxidative stress (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and malondialdehyde) was assessed. The inflammatory response (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, myeloperoxidase and nuclear factor-kappa B) and apoptotic marker (Bax and Bcl-2) were also evaluated. Results: The results showed that water and 75% ethanol extracts of C. deserticola (named CDW and CDE, respectively) (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) in combination with GM could recover the reduction of glomerular filtration rate and enhance the renal endogenous antioxidant capability induced by GM. The increase in the expression of renal inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6), nuclear protein of nuclear factor-kappa B (p65) and the activity of myeloperoxidase induced by GM was significantly decreased upon CDW or CDE treatment. In addition, CDW or CDE treatment could decrease the Bax protein expression and increase the Bcl-2 protein expression in GM-induced nephrotoxicity in rats significantly. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that C. deserticola treatment could attenuate kidney dysfunction and structural damage in rats induced by GM through the reduction of inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis.
    2023,15(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective: Acute liver injury (ALF) is a potential factor of many serious hepatopathies. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a possible environmental toxicant that can induce ALF. Portulaca oleracea (PO) is one of the most popular edible herbs and has several biological activities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory effects. We explored the significance of PO in regulating inflammatory function in animal models and cultured hepatocytes during liver damage caused by CCl4. Methods: The effect of PO on ALF was evaluated by CCl4-induced mice models in vivo. Hepatic levels of transaminase activities and inflammatory factors were examined. The gene and protein expression of S100A8 and S100A9 were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Meanwhile, the efficacy of PO was certified by HepG2 cells in vitro. The transaminase activities, inflammatory factors, and the protein expression of S100A8 and S100A9 were also detected. Results: Animal tests showed that pretreatment with PO reduced the liver pathological tissue damage and the serum levels of ALT, AST, ALT and LDH, as well as reducing the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) secretion in CCl4-induced liver injury mice. Simultaneously, HepG2 cells pretreated with PO exhibited a significant decrease in the activities of ALT and AST. Moreover, PO resulted in a significant downregulation of the pro-inflammatory markers S100A8, S100A9 gene and protein expression on CCl4 induced acute liver injury was demonstrated entirely in vivo and vitro experiments. Conclusion: PO may down-regulate S100A8 and S100A9 and inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines' release, indicating a potential clinical effect for controlling the disease.
    2023,15(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective: The intestinal absorption characteristics of active ingredients are very important for oral administration of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to achieve the desired therapeutic effect. However, a deeper understanding about active ingredients absorption characteristics is still lack. The aim of this study was to investigate the absorption properties and mechanism of rhubarb active ingredients in TCM preparation and pure form. Methods: The intestinal absorption behavior of active ingredients in Shenkang extract (SKE) and rhubarb anthraquinone ingredients (RAI) were investigated by in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion model. And the bidirectional transport characteristics of these active ingredients were assessed by in vitro Caco-2 cell monolayer model. Results: In situ experiment on Sprague-Dawley rats, the effective permeability coefficient values of aloe-emodin, emodin and chrysophanol in RAI were higher than those in SKE, and the value of rhein in RAI was lower than that in SKE. But the easily absorbed segments of intestine were consistent for all ingredients, whether in SKE or in RAI. In vitro experiment, the apparent permeability coefficient values of rhein, emodin and chrysophanol in RAI were higher than those in SKE, and this value of aloe-emodin in RAI was lower than that in SKE. But their efflux ratio (ER) values in SKE and RAI were all similar. Conclusion: Four rhubarb anthraquinone ingredients in SKE and RAI have similar absorption mechanism and different absorption behavior, and the microenvironment of the study models influenced their absorption behavior. The results may provide an aid for understanding of the absorption characteristics of the TCM active ingredients in complex environments and the complementarities of different research models.
    2023,15(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective: This study aimed to identify the main medicinal active components of Panax ginseng in the compatibility environment of clinical application. For this purpose, the anti-inflammatory ingredients of P. ginseng were investigated based on its therapeutic effect in Sijunzi Decoction (SJD) which is a widely used traditional Chinese formula. Methods: The fingerprints of 10 batches of SJD consisting of different sources of P. ginseng were established by UPLC technique to investigate the chemical components. At the same time, the anti-inflammatory effects of these components were evaluated by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) mouse model. Grey relational analysis (GRA) was applied to explore the correlation degree between fingerprints and anti-inflammatory effects in SJD. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophages were established to evaluate anti-inflammatory action of the screened effective substances of P. ginseng. Results: According to grey relational analysis, notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg2, ginsenoside Rb3 of P. ginseng were the major anti-inflammatory contributions in SJD. They had been proven to be closely associated with the anti-inflammatory process of SJD and displayed a close effect compared with SJD by LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophages. Conclusion: Our work provides a general strategy for exploring the pharmacological ingredients of P. ginseng in traditional Chinese formulas which is beneficial for establishing the quality standards of traditional herbs in traditional Chinese medicine prescription based on their clinical therapeutic effect.
    2023,15(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective To evaluate whether α-ionone, an aromatic compound mainly found in raspberries, carrots, roasted almonds, fruits, and herbs, inhibits UVB-mediated photoaging and barrier dysfunction in a human epidermal keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT cells). Methods The anti-photoaging effect of α-ionone was evaluated by detecting the expression of barrier-related genes and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in HaCaT cells. The levels of reactive oxygen species, oxidation product, antioxidant enzyme, and inflammatory factors were further analysed to underline the protective effect of α-ionone on epidermal photoaging. Results It was found that α-ionone attenuated UVB-induced barrier dysfunction by reversing keratin 1 and filaggrin in HaCaT cells. α-Ionone also reduced the protein amount of MMP-1 and mRNA expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3 in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells, implying protective effects on extracellular matrix. Furthermore, HaCaT cells exposed to α-ionone showed significant decreases in interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α as compared to UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. α-Ionone treatment significantly inhibited the UVB-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species increase and malondialdehyde accumulation. Therefore, the beneficial effects of α-ionone on inhibiting MMPs secretion and barrier damage may be related to attenuated inflammation and oxidative stress. Conclusion Our results highlight the protective effects of α-ionone on epidermal photoaging and promote its clinic application as a potential natural anti-photodamage agent in future.
    2023,15(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective: As a classic prescription in traditional Chinese medicine, Xuefu Zhuyu Decoction (XFZYD) has been widely used in the clinical treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. In order to unveil the potentially effective compounds, a rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) method was established to identify prototype components and their metabolites from XFZYD in rats' serum. Methods: The serum from rats after intragastric administration of XFZYD aqueous extract was analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS method. The prototype components and their metabolites were identified by comparison with the reference standards and tentatively characterized by comprehensively analyzing the retention time, MS data, characteristic MS fragmentation pattern and retrieving literatures. Results: A total of 175 components (24 prototype components and 151 metabolites) were identified and tentatively characterized. The metabolic pathways of prototype components in vivo were also summarized, including glucuronidation, hydrolyzation, sulfation, demethylation, and hydroxylation, and so on. Conclusion: In this study, a UPLC-Q-TOF/MS technique was developed to analyze prototype components and their metabolites from XFZYD in serum, which would provide the evidence for further studying the effective compounds of XFZYD.
    2023,15(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study the chemical constituents from the aerial parts of Scoparia dulcis. Methods: Various chromatographic techniques were used to separate the constituents and their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods and by comparing their data to those reported in the literatures. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity assay was used to identify potential α-glucosidase inhibitors. Results: Nine compounds were isolated from the aerial parts of S. dulcis. Their structures were identified as Scoparic zolone (1), (2S)-2,7-dihydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (2), (2R)-7-hydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), (2R)-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), (2S)-7-hydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), 6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (6), 4-acetonyl-3,5-dimethoxy-p-quinol (7), zizyvoside I (8), and 3,4-dihydroxy benzeneacetic acid (9). Compound 2 showed the potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of (132.8 ± 11.5) μmol/L, which is 28-fold higher than the positive control acarbose. Conclusion: Compound 1 is a new natural product. Compounds 2 and 9 have not been reported in Scoparia before. Compounds 3, 5, 7, 8 are isolated from Scrophulariaceae for the first time.
    2023,15(1):1-2, DOI:
    Abstract:
    The concept of food and medicine continuum (FMC) is traced back to Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica (Shénnóng Běncǎo Jīng in Chinese) of the 1st century (Heinrich et al., 2022), which recorded 120 herbal medicines of the ‘top grade’ with nourishing properties; they can be consumed for extended periods of time without obvious side effects, indicating their functional food and medicinal benefits (Xiao, 2023). In recent decades, the health-promoting actions of numerous edible herbal medicines and phytometabolites therein have been scrutinized. For instance, many FMC plants, such as ginseng, Camellia sinensis, Ganoderma lucidum, goji, etc., display effects of enhancing immunity (Pan et al., 2023; Yao et al., 2023). The benefits of dietary interventions and phytometabolites on improving cognitive functions in elderly population have been supported by accumulating evidence (Heinrich et al., 2022). Therefore, food and medicine dual-use products are important in the prevention and intervention of chronic diseases and senile illnesses. Due to the different historical and cultural backgrounds of the East and the West, as well as the huge differences in geographical environment, physique and resources, the eating/medication habits are also distinct between East and West, which have established unique standards and knowledge systems for FMC products, and have different ways, purposes and methods of using the same FMC species or phylogenetically related species (Xiao, 2023). The list for FMC substances of China includes 109 entities, which are from 151 species (Yao et al., 2023). However, in Europe only 37 of these species are very important in healthy food use, and 86 of them are not used for healthy food. Strengthening the research and knowledge dissemination of Oriental FMC within the phylogenetic framework, consistent with the oriental systematic thinking, will help to improve the regulatory standards for FMC items, reduce barriers to communication, and make FMC more effective for the benefit of all mankind. Nature presents a wonderful scene of food and medicine dual use, which brings endless fun to human rational thinking, no matter macro or micro. This issue has several outstanding papers that demonstrate the unremitting pursuit of human beings in exploring FMC substances. For instance, the phytochemistry analysis displayed that the main components of Benincasae Exocarpium (the dried outer pericarp of Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn.) are flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, trace elements and vitamins (Zhang et al., 2023), and 43 compounds have been reported at present. The tea polyphenols, e.g., flavan-3-ols, flavonol glycosides, theanine, caffeine, are the most important compounds for both bioactivities and flavors, which are abundant in both black tea/oolong tea and dark tea (Pan et al., 2023)/Kombucha (Selvaraj & Gurumurthy, 2023). Additionally, the enriched metabolites via microbial fermentation form the mellow, sweet, and smooth taste of dark tea. Such metabolites include but not limited to prenylated cyclic dipeptides, B-vitamins, anthraquinones, flavan-3-ol B-ring fission analogues, fatty acids, triterpenoids, guanidine derivatives, cholesterol, lipopeptides, acarbose, asperphenamate, prenylated benzaldehydes, among others. Similarly, Kombucha is made from black tea via microbial fermentation (Selvaraj & Gurumurthy, 2023), which contains abundant organic acids, amino acids, vitamins, probiotics, sugars, polyphenols, and antioxidants. It could be intriguing to compare the fermentation metabolome of dark tea and Kombucha, and reveal the underlying microbial mechanisms via multiple omics techniques. It is interesting to treat Benincasae Exocarpium with fermentation microbiota to see whether its metabolome, flavor and health-promoting bioactivities could be further improved, so as to enrich the value-added products derived from FMC materials. Based on experimental analyses of phytochemistry and bioactivity of FMC materials, the medicinal/edible compounds and properties of related plants can be predicted by virtue of phylogenetic methods (Hao et al., 2022a, c), which nevertheless has not been utilized to explore the regularity of most ethnomedicinal and edible species. It is promising to investigate the distribution of the specific compound type and/or efficacy of ethnomedicinal/edible plants on the species-level Tree of Life, so as to more effectively tap health food resources. Tea has a deep history as the first Chinese herbal medicine used by the Chinese. Modern pharmacological studies and clinical practice showed that Benincasae Exocarpium has diuretic, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiviral effects (Zhang et al., 2023), which has long been used as a material of tea. Kombucha, originated in northeast China and is popular abroad, possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-proliferative activities (Selvaraj & Gurumurthy, 2023). The bioactivities of dark tea are also diverse, including antioxidation, anti-bacteria, anti-inflammation, anti-obesity, ant-diabetes, anti-diarrhea, anti-cancer, gastrointestinal regulation, cardiovascular protection, immune-regulation, hepatoprotection, neuroprotection, and photoprotection (Pan et al., 2023). In contrast to these advances, the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) studies of these FMC materials are far less enough, and there is gap in the awareness of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) attributes of many FMC products. Despite numerous reports about beneficial effects of FMC materials, it is difficult to determine the chemical basis of different therapeutic and health effects, for which studies of ADMET properties must be taken into account, including the elucidation of gut microbiota mediated transformation (Hao et al., 2022b). The phylogenetically closer species are more likely to have similar phytometabolome, but FMC chemicals with the same/similar structural type might have analogous or reverse ADMET properties, which warrant case-by-case elaborations in the context of pharmacophylogeny. Facing the competition of western medicine, the identity of herbal medicine is always in crisis, and it must constantly redefine itself in the landscape of evolving new theories and technologies. It is important to provide consumers with the recommended, minimum, and maximum daily doses of FMC products (Pan et al., 2023). The optimal duration of intake to achieve a significant preventive and ameliorating effects of diseases should also be carefully studied. At the beginning of the birth of FMC, art, science and technology were interrelated. The overlapping and intertextuality of art, science and technology on FMC jointly defined FMC. In the contemporary era when western medicine has overwhelming advantages, most of the health benefits and non-toxicity of FMC materials have not been scientifically validated in human body. Clinical trials are yet to be done to manifest the claimed health benefits. Of note, most FMC studies focus on either in vitro screening in cell culture or network pharmacology speculations based on data from in silico and/or simple cell culture models (Hao et al., 2022b). In the future, the clinical trials of FMC products have to be conducted as open label with placebo, covering enough number of subjects, and should focus on symptomatic benefits. The clinical studies are expected to generate PKPD insights as well. With any luck, findings from such research could strengthen consumers' confidence and recognition of FMC, as legitimate prevention and treatment option. Actually, the recent COVID-19 outbreak in major cities could help generate real-world data on the use of TCM (including FMC), which provide appreciated insights on their utilities. Last but not least, as the food and/or drink, the proper sensory evaluation should be performed to provide a vibrant view of the flavor profile, the consumer’s desire, and acceptance (Selvaraj & Gurumurthy, 2023). Many FMC substances are traditionally used as food and listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, which have both the efficacy of TCM and the safety of traditional food, therefore they play a vital role in health care. However, people often overemphasize the safety of FMC products in the clinical application, but ignore their application principles, function characteristics, application forms and dietary taboos, thus resulting in ineffectiveness and even harm to health. Pharmaceutical researchers must master the concept and connotation of FMC, and also learn more about food science and engineering. Under the guidance of TCM theory, researchers and clinicians need to use the dialectical thinking, apply FMC materials based on syndrome differentiation, reasonably mix them, adjust measures to people and local conditions, and grasp the functions and characteristics of FMC products, which can not only demonstrate the effectiveness of TCM, but also further ensure the safety of FMC application as food, so as to benefit the healthy development of standardization, modernization and internationalization of FMC products.
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    2011,3(2):140-143, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.02.009
    [Abstract] (1849) [HTML] (0) [PDF 142.79 K] (18391)
    Abstract:
    Objective To study a novel feature extraction method of Chinese materia medica (CMM) fingerprint. Methods On the basis of the radar graphical presentation theory of multivariate, the radar map was used to figure the non-map parameters of the CMM fingerprint, then to extract the map features and to propose the feature fusion. Results Better performance was achieved when using this method to test data. Conclusion This shows that the feature extraction based on radar chart presentation can mine the valuable features that facilitate the identification of Chinese medicine.
    2012,4(1):63-69, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2012.01.010
    [Abstract] (1885) [HTML] (0) [PDF 160.29 K] (11920)
    Abstract:
    Objective To identify and analyze the volatile constituents in the leaves and fruits of Ficus carica. Methods Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used. Results The major components detected in volatile oil of the leaves were psoralen (10.12%), β-damascenone (10.17%), benzyl alcohol (4.56%), behenic acid (4.79%), and bergapten (1.99%), etc. The major components detected in volatile oil of the fruits were furfural (10.55%), 5-methyl-2-furaldehyde (10.1%), and benzeneacetaldehyde (6.59%), etc. Conclusion A total of 121 volatile constituents are identified in the leaves and 108 in the fruits of F. carica, among which 103 constituents are identified for the first time in the leaves and 100 in the fruits. Eighteen volatile constituents are identified in both leaves and fruits.
    2010,2(4):272-288, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.04.005
    [Abstract] (3286) [HTML] (0) [PDF 307.65 K] (10864)
    Abstract:
    Callicarpa Linn. (beautyberry) is one of the major genera in Verbenaceous, about 20 of which are medicinal plants. Beautyberry, called Zizhu in China, is a generic name of those species and largely used as hemostatic medicine. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 has admitted three new crude drugs from the genus of Callicarpa Linn. including Callicarpae Macrophyllae Folium, Callicarpae Caulis et Folium, and Callicarpae Formosanae Folium for the first time since the 1977 version of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. In order to better understand these new crude drugs, we systematically described their bibliography, admission reasons, botanical identification, chemistry, and pharmacology. Several other species, out of national regulations but intensively studied and widely used, are also covered in this review.
    2012,4(3):245-251, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2012.03.012
    [Abstract] (2454) [HTML] (0) [PDF 221.06 K] (10763)
    Abstract:
    Objective Establishing a ?ngerprint method to identify the characteristic chemicals in the roots of Gentiana macrophylla and evaluate their quality. Methods RP-HPLC was developed for ?ngerprint analysis and determination of four ingredients in G. macrophylla roots from different sources. LC-ESI-TOF-MS was employed to identify the chromatographic peaks of the ?ngerprint. Results Five common peaks were identified by comparing their retention time with reference secoiridoid glucosides. Eight major peaks in chromatographic fingerprint were analyzed by on-line LC-ESI-TOF-MS. Four secoiridoid glucosides were identified based on their MS data. Conclusion The method is specific and could be served for the quality identi?cation and comprehensive evaluation of G. macrophylla.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (2331) [HTML] (0) [PDF 503.58 K] (10654)
    Abstract:
    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has developed over thousands of years and has accumulated abundant clinical experience, forming a comprehensive and unique medical system. Emerging evidence has begun to illustrate TCM as an area of important medical rediscoveries. This paper briefly introduced the concept, significance, and technology of network pharmacology based on network biology and systems biology. It focused on the theoretical system and potential prospect of TCM network applied in TCM research and development including predicting new drug targets, action mechanism, new drug discovery; evaluating pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, safety, toxicology, quality control, and bioinformatics of drugs. We also discussed the opportunities and challenges in the development and application of network pharmacology in the modernization of TCM research.
    [Abstract] (2298) [HTML] (0) [PDF 583.26 K] (10144)
    Abstract:
    Rhubarb is a perennial herb belonging to the genus Rheum L. (Polygonaceae). Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (rhubarb roots and rhizomes) is one of the most popular Chinese materia medica and has been widely used for strong laxative function. About 200 compounds with six different types of skeletons (anthraquinone, anthrone, stilbene, flavonoids, acylglucoside, and pyrone) have so far been isolated from eighteen species of the genus Rheum L. These constituents showed extensive pharmacological activities including cathartic, diuretic, anticancer, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects, as well as toxicological effects. Chemical fingerprint, LC-MS, and other analytical techniques have been used for the quality control of rhubarb. This comprehensive review summarizes the researches into the isolation, pharmacological activities, and phytochemical analysis reported since investigations began in the late 1940s. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies and clinical application of rhubarb are also discussed in present paper.
    2016,8(3):196-208, DOI: 10.1016/S1674-6384(16)60043-6
    [Abstract] (789) [HTML] (0) [PDF 311.21 K] (10034)
    Abstract:
    Chinese Pharmacopoeia is updated every five years, of which traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is the most important part. The 2015 version completed by the 10th Pharmacopoeia Commission has come into operation since December 1, 2015. Here we introduced the revision and improvement of quality evaluation and control standards of TCMs in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015.
    2010,2(4):250-261, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.04.003
    [Abstract] (2996) [HTML] (0) [PDF 401.07 K] (9087)
    Abstract:
    For the protection of consumers and developments of relevant industry, authentication of medicinal plants is a critical issue. This review covers various aspects of authentication methods and techniques based on molecular biology and genomics with special emphasis on molecular biology techniques including genome-based authentication, microchip-based authentication, DNA barcoding, and their applications.
    2010,2(2):148-152, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.02.010
    [Abstract] (3595) [HTML] (0) [PDF 215.71 K] (9063)
    Abstract:
    Objective To develop an efficient method to isolate and purify the main components isoaloeresin D and aloin from Aloe vera for its industrial production. Methods High-speed counter-current chromatography was used to isolate isoaloeresin D and aloin in a one-step separation from dried crude extract of A. vera. The biphasic solvent system composed of hexane-ethyl acetate-acetone-water (0.2︰5︰1.5︰5) was used at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, while the lipophilic phase was selected as the mobile phase and the apparatus was rotated at 840 r/min. The effluent was detected at 254 nm. Results Isoaloeresin D (53.1 mg) and aloin (106.9 mg) were separated from the crude extract (384.7 mg) with the purities of 98.6% and 99.5%, respectively. Conclusion HSCCC is a powerful technique for isolation and separation of chemical composition from aloe.
    2011,3(2):150-155, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.02.011
    [Abstract] (2792) [HTML] (0) [PDF 157.86 K] (8529)
    Abstract:
    Objective Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is widely used as a spice in cooking and as a medicinal herb in traditional herbal medicine. The present study was to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ginger oil in experimental animal models. Methods The analgesic effect of the oils was evaluated by the “acetic acid” and “hot-plate” test models of pain in mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of the oil was investigated in rats, using rat paw edema induced by carrageenan, adjuvant arthritis, and vascular permeability induced by bradykinin, arachidonic acid, and histamine. Indomethacin (1 mg/kg), Aspirin (0.5 g/kg) and Dexamethasone (2.5 mg/kg) were used respectively as reference drugs for comparison. Results The ginger oil (0.25-1.0 g/kg) produced significant analgesic effect against chemically- and thermally-induced nociceptive pain stimuli in mice (P < 0.05, 0.01). And the ginger oil (0.25-1.0 g/kg) also significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema, adjuvant arthritis, and inflammatory mediators-induced vascular permeability in rats (P < 0.05, 0.001). Conclusion These findings confirm that the ginger oil can be used to treat pain and chronic inflammation such as rheumatic arthritis.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (1871) [HTML] (0) [PDF 273.72 K] (8302)
    Abstract:
    Cistanches Herba, a famous traditional Chinese materia medica, has a laudatory title “desert ginseng”. According to Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2000, Cistanches Herba is the dry fleshy stem with scale-like leaves of Cistanche deserticola. In order to expand the drug source, Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2005 increased the plants in Cistanche Hoffmg. et Link (Orobanchaceae), C. tubulosa, and dry scaly leaf succulent stems were as genuine Cistanches Herba and still in use. In order to have more comprehensive understanding on Cistanches Herba, this paper focuses the reviews on the biological characteristics, chemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of Cistanches Herba, and its development prospects are looked forward. It provides the relative theoretical basis for the subsequent research work of Cistanches Herba and can be conducive to the development and utilization of Cistanches Herba.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (1806) [HTML] (0) [PDF 324.52 K] (8150)
    Abstract:
    Objective To predict the total flavonoids concentration of Aurantii Fructus fried with bran in its extraction process. Methods Ultraviolet spectrophotometry was used to determine the concentration of total flavonoids in different extraction time (t ) and solvent load (M ). Then the predicted procedure was carried out using the following data: 1) based on Ficks second law, the parameters of the kinetic model could be deduced and the equation was established; 2) Locally weighted regression (LWR) code was developed in the WEKA software environment to predict the concentration. And then we used both methods to predict the concentration of total flavonoids in new experiments. Results After comparing the predicted results with the experimental data, the LWR model had better accuracy and performance in the prediction. Conclusion LWR is applied to analyze the extraction process of Chinese herb for the first time, and it is totally fit for the extraction. LWR-based system is a more simple and accurate way to predict than the established equation. It is a good choice especially for a process which exists no clearly rules, and can be used in the real-time control during the process.
    2010,2(2):81-105, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.02.001
    [Abstract] (2945) [HTML] (0) [PDF 822.05 K] (7815)
    Abstract:
    Objective The 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (ACPC) is a natural micromolecule non-protein amino acid that exists only in plants. Despite the determination of its regulating effects on plants, several bioactivities and effects on animals or humans are still unclear. This review focuses the pharmaceutical effects,above all, the neuroprotective effects of ACPC on the cerebro- and cardiovascular system. Methods Two hundred and seventy nine studies were selected and identified from a total of 2457 references in Medline and Chemical Abstracts from 1957 to 2008. Only 38 articles on neuroprotective effects of ACPC from seven different countries qualified to be included in the analysis. Results ACPC has altogether following six general neuroprotective effects on the brain and nervous system: anti-neurotoxicity induced by NMDA, dynorphin-A, glutamate, and morphine; protection from cerebral neurological injury induced by ischemia; antidepressant and anxiolytic effects; anti-convulsion and -seizures and control of epilepsy; facilitation of spatial learning and memory; and the effect of reducing alcohol consumption. Conclusion ACPC has shown a variety of effects on plants and animals. The bioactivities and pharmaceutical effects on animals are of great significance to medical research and public health. Further clinical trials or epidemiological studies are needed to determine its effect in humans. Food intervention with ACPC-rich vegetables and fruits may be a suitable therapy for cerebro- and cardiovascular system diseases. Administration of trace exogenous ACPC could produce vegetables and fruits of rich endogenous ACPC.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (1989) [HTML] (0) [PDF 488.37 K] (7685)
    Abstract:
    Bentysrepinine (Y101), a derivative of repensine, is a novel di-peptide structure isolated from Dichondra repens. In vitro and in vivo tests exhibited that bentysrepinine markedly inhibited DNA-HBV and cccDNA activities. The binding mode of Y101 and repensine with DNA polymerase was driven by hydrophobic interactions. This might provide novel recognition of inhibitory effect of Y101 against HBV, though its inhibition mechanism needs to be validated by bio-assay at cellular level and of polymerase activity. Preliminary docking study suggested that Y101 might be able to inhibit HIV inverse transcriptase, also have the potential to interact with DNA polymerase and HCV NS5B polymerase.
    2011,3(2):117-126, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.02.006
    [Abstract] (3600) [HTML] (0) [PDF 211.05 K] (7623)
    Abstract:
    The reports on chemical constituents of Hyoscyamus niger were summarized. The compounds include alkaloids, saponins, lignans, coumarinolignans, flavonoids, and some other nonalkaloidal compounds. TLC, HPLC, and GC were used for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of some chemical constituents in H. niger. Modern pharmacological experiments showed that H. niger had the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anticonvulsant, spasmolytic, antidiarrhoeal, antisecretory, bronchodilatory, urinary bladder relaxant, hypotensive, cardiosuppressant, vasodilator, antitumor, and feeding deterrent properties. In addition, the toxicities of this medicinal plant were also described.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (1908) [HTML] (0) [PDF 299.63 K] (7469)
    Abstract:
    The inception of network pharmacology comes from the advance in “multi-target, multi-drug” paradigm and opens up a new field for pharmaceutical science. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is well-known for its use of medicinal herb combinations to treat the functional disorders induced by diseases through a holistic view, which naturally followed the principal of network pharmacology. In this review, the methodologies of network pharmacology in TCM studies were summarized. Specifically, the methodologies for network construction and network analysis were detailed by following several TCM study cases followed. The perspectives for TCM network pharmacology were also provided.
    [Abstract] (3602) [HTML] (0) [PDF 469.82 K] (7317)
    Abstract:
    This review is briefly to recall the history of research and development (R&D) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and to discuss the challenges of Chinese traditional and herbal medicines (CTHM) facing the modern science and technology. The R&D of CTHM is thought to be an important pathway for new drug discovery. Since1949, about 140 approved new drugs have been developed, among which about 80 originated directly or indirectly from medicinal plants. CTHM has gained interest from the international medical, biomedical, and pharmaceutical institutions as a valuable source of potential medicines. For the modernization of CMM and innovative research of CTHM, there are following challenges to be faced: (1) to evaluate the efficacy, pharmacological properties, action mechanism, and active chemical constituents; (2) to develop new methodologies for the quality and safety of CTHM; (3) to apply new “-omics” techniques to accelerate drug discoveries developed from CTHM; and (4) to apply international practices including good agricultural practice, good manufacturing practice, good laboratory practice, and good clinical practice in the R&D of CTHM.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (1827) [HTML] (0) [PDF 360.32 K] (7269)
    Abstract:
    Objective A reversed-phase HPLC method was established for the simultaneous determination of five hydrophilic and lipophilic components in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Methods Hydrophilic components including danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, and salvianolic acid B, and lipophilic components such as cryptotanshinone and tanshinone IIA, were successfully separated on a Waters Symmetry C18 reverse- phase column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm), with acetonitrile-0.5% phosphoric acid (gradient elution) as mobile phase, the detection wavelength was set at 281 nm with flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, and the column temperature was maintained at 30 °C. Results The recovery of the method was in the range of 95.1%–102.5% and the precision was less than 3% for all five analytes. All the compounds showed good linearity (R2 > 0.9990) in a relatively wide concentration range. Therefore, this HPLC method demonstrated good reproducibility, stability, and accuracy in validation studies. Conclusion Simultaneous quanti?cation of the multiple components by HPLC would be a better strategy for the quality evaluation on the roots of S. miltiorrhiza.
    2010,2(3):180-188, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.03.004
    [Abstract] (2114) [HTML] (0) [PDF 265.22 K] (6971)
    Abstract:
    The publications on the journal of Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs in Vol.40, 2009 are briefly reviewed in the categories of chemical constituents, preparations and technologies, analysis and quality control, pharmacological and clinical studies, reviews, and finally healthy principles. Some comments, especially for hot topics have been personally provided.

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