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    Abstract:
    The family Orchidaceae is of the most diverse taxon in the plant kingdom, and most of its members are highly valuable herbal medicines. Orchids have a unique mycorrhizal symbiotic relationship with specific fungi for carbohydrate and nutrient supplies in their whole lifecycle. The large-scale cultivation of the medicinal plant Gastodia elata is a successful example of using mycorrhizal symbiotic technology. In this review, we adopted G. elata and Dendrobium officinale as examples to describe the characteristics of orchid mycorrhiza and mycorrhizal benefits for host plants’ growth and health (e.g. biotic and abiotic stress and secondary metabolite accumulation). The challenges in applying mycorrhizal technology to the cultivation of orchid medicinal plants in the future were also discussed. This review aims to serve as a theoretical guide for the cultivation of mycorrhizal technology in medicinal orchid plants.
    Abstract:
    Rhizosphere microorganisms, as one of the most important components of the soil microbiota and plant holobiont, play a key role in the medicinal plant-soil ecosystem, which are closely related to the growth, adaptability, nutrient absorption, stress tolerance and pathogen resistance of host plants. In recent years, with the wide application of molecular biology and omics technologies, the outcomes of rhizosphere microorganisms on the health, biomass production and secondary metabolite biosynthesis of medicinal plants have received extensive attention. However, whether or to what extent rhizosphere microorganisms can contribute to the construction of the quality evaluation system of Chinese medicinal materials is still elusive. Based on the significant role of rhizosphere microbes in the survival and quality formation of medicinal plants, this paper proposed a new concept of rhizosphere microbial markers (micro-markers), expounded the relevant research methods and ideas of applying the new concept, highlighted the importance of micro-markers in the quality evaluation and control system of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), and introduced the potential value in soil environmental assessment, plant pest control and quality assessment of TCMs. It provides reference for developing ecological planting of TCMs and ensuring the production of high quality TCMs by regulating rhizosphere microbial communities.
    Abstract:
    Microbial resource influences the life activities of medicinal plants from several perspectives. Endophytes, rhizosphere microorganisms, and other environmental microorganisms play essential roles in medicinal plant growth and development, plant yield, and clinical efficacy. The microbiota can influence the biosynthesis of active compounds in medicinal plants by stimulating specific metabolic pathways. They induce host plants to improve their resistance to environmental stresses by accumulating secondary metabolites. Microorganisms can interact with their host plants to produce long-term, targeted selection results and improve their ability to adapt to the environment. Due to the interdependence and interaction between microorganisms and medicinal plants, Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) quality is closely related to the associated microorganisms. This review summarizes the relationship between medicinal plants and their associated microorganisms, including their species, distribution, life activities, and metabolites. Microorganisms can aid in quality control, improve the efficacy of medicinal plants, and provide markers for identifying the origin and storage time of CHMs. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between microorganisms and medicinal plants will help to control the quality of CHMs from different perspectives.
    Abstract:
    Medicinal plants, as medicinal materials and important drug components, have been used in traditional and folk medicine for ages. However, being sessile organisms, they are seriously affected by extreme environmental conditions and abiotic stresses such as salt, heavy metal, temperature, and water stresses. Medicinal plants usually produce specific secondary metabolites to survive such stresses, and these metabolites can often be used for treating human diseases. Recently, medicinal plants have been found to partner with endophytic fungi to form a long-term, stable, and win–win symbiotic relationship. Endophytic fungi can promote secondary metabolite accumulation in medicinal plants. The close relationship can improve host plant resistance to the abiotic stresses of soil salinity, drought, and extreme temperatures. Their symbiosis also sheds light on plant growth and active compound production. Here, we show that endophytic fungi can improve the host medicinal plant resistance to abiotic stress by regulating active compounds, reducing oxidative stress, and regulating the cell ion balance. We also identify the deficiencies and burning issues of available studies and present promising research topics for the future. This review provides guidance for endophytic fungi research to improve the ability of medicinal plants to resist abiotic stress. It also suggests ideas and methods for active compound accumulation in medicinal plants and medicinal material development during the response to abiotic stress.
    Abstract:
    Objective: Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis, one of the important medicinal plant resources in Yunnan, China, usually takes 6–8 years to be harvested. Therefore, it is urgent to find a method that can not only shorten its growth years, but also improve its quality. In this study, we examined the effects of a combination treatment of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth-promoting endophytes (PGPE) and drought stress on the accumulation of saponins in it. Methods: P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was infected with a mixture of AMF and PGPE under drought stress. The content of saponins, as well as morphological, physiological, and biochemical indicators, were all measured. The UGTs gene related to saponin synthesis was obtained from transcriptome data by homologous comparison, which were used for RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis. Results: Regardless of water, AMF treatment could infect the roots of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, however double inoculation with AMF and PGPE (AMF + PGPE) would reduce the infection rate of AMF. Plant height, aboveground and underground fresh weight did not differ significantly between the single inoculation AMF and the double inoculation treatment under different water conditions, but the inoculation treatment significantly increased the plant height of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis compared to the noninoculation treatment. Single inoculation with AMF considerably increased the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis leaves under various water conditions, but double inoculation with AMF + PGPE greatly increased the intercellular CO2 concentration and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter (Fv/Fm). Under diverse water treatments, single inoculation AMF had the highest proline content, whereas double inoculation AMF + PGPE may greatly improve the amount of abscisic acid (ABA) and indoleacetic acid (IAA) compared to normal water under moderate drought. Double inoculation AMF + PGPE treatment improved the proportion of N, P, and K in the rhizome of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis under various water conditions. Under moderate drought stress, AMF + PGPE significantly enhanced the contents of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis saponins I, II, VII, and total saponins as compared to normal water circumstances. Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS), Geranyl pyrophosphate synthase (GPPS), Cycloartenol synthase (CAS), and Squalene epoxidase (SE1) were the genes that were significantly up-regulated at the same time. The amount of saponins was favorably linked with the expression of CAS, GPPS, and SE1. Saponin VI content and glycosyl transferase (UGT) 010922 gene expression were found to be substantially associated, as was saponin II content and UGT010935 gene expression. Conclusion: Under moderate drought, AMF + PGPE was more conducive to the increase of hormone content, nutrient absorption, and total saponin content in P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, and AMF + PGPE could up regulate the expression of key genes and UGTs genes in one or more steroidal saponin synthesis pathways to varying degrees, thereby stimulating the synthesis and accumulation of steroidal saponins in the rhizome of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The combination of AMF and PGPE inoculation, as well as adequate soil drought, reduced the buildup of saponins in P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and increased its quality.
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study the compounds isolated from Penicillium HDS-Z-1E, an endophytic fungal strain isolated from Taxus cuspidata and their activation effect of catalase (CAT). Methods: The chemical constituents were isolated from Penicillium HDS-Z-1E, by using silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and HPLC. The structural elucidations of five metabolites were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic including 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMBC and HSQC. Their activation sites of catalase have been investigated by molecular docking. Results: Five metabolites, compounds (1–5) were isolated from Penicillium HDS-Z-1E and identified as 4-hydroxy-4-methyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-one (1), 4-hydroxymethyl-5, 6-dihydro-pyran-2-one (2), 5, 6-dihydro-2-oxo-2H-pyran-4-carboxylic (3), N-acetyl hydrazinobenzoic acid (4), and methyl 2-(2, 5-dihydroxyphenyl) acetate (5). Conclusion: Compound 3 is a new compound. Compounds 3 and 4 may have potential activators of catalase, providing a theoretical basis for the development of CAT activators.
    Abstract:
    Objective: To isolate bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Fusarium sporotrichioides isolated from Rauwolfia yunnanensis, and investigate their pharmacological activities. Methods: The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by combining with ODS column chromatography, silica gel column chromatography and by performing semipreparative HPLC. Their structures were established on the basis of 1D NMR (1H NMR and 13C NMR) and 2D NMR (1H–1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY), as well as HRESIMS and comparison with literature data. In addition, the absolute configuration of compound 1 was determined by calculated ECD data. Results: One previously undescribed tetracyclic triterpenoid derivative, named as integracide L (1), 12α-acetoxy-4,4-dimethyl-24-methylene-5α-cholesta-8,14-diene-2α,3β,11β-triol (2), 12α-acetoxy-4,4-dimethyl-24-methylene-5α-cholesta-8-momoene-2α,3β,11β-triol (3), 12α-acetoxy-4,4-dimethyl-24-methylene-5α-cholesta-8,14-diene-3β,11β-triol (4), and 12α-acetoxy-4,4-dimethyl-24-methylene-5α-cholesta-8-momoene-3β,11β-triol (5) were isolated from F. sporotrichioide. Moreover, compound 1 was rare tetracyclic triterpenoid with single methyl replacement at C-4 position. Conclusion: Compound 1 was a new tetracyclic triterpenoid isolated from the endophytic fungus F. sporotrichioides. In addition, compound 2 could inhibit the growth of three different human cancer cells significantly. Compounds 3 and 5 were found to possess better cytotoxic activities on HepG-2 cells than the other compounds, with IC50 values of (2.8 ± 0.1) and (6.3 0.3)μmol/L respectively.
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study secondary metabolites from endophytic fungus Colletotruchum sp. HK-08 originated from the leaves of Nerium indicum. Methods: The compounds were isolated by various column chromatographic techniques, and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques [high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HRESIMS), one-dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)], as well as comparison with literature data. The Ellman method was used to determine the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity. Results: Four indole derivatives were identified from Colletotruchum sp. HK-08, including 60-hydroxymonaspiloindole (1), 2-(2-oxoindolin-3-yl)ethyl 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetate (2), 2-(2-oxoindolin-3-yl)ethyl 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetate (3), and monaspiloindole (4). Compound 4 presented weak AChE inhibitory activity with IC50 value of (69.30 ± 6.27) μmol/L [tacrine as the positive control, with IC50 value of (0.61 ± 0.07) μmol/L]. Conclusion: Compounds 1–3 were new compounds, and compound 4 had weak AChE inhibitory activity.
    Abstract:
    Constipation is common in the diseases of the digestive system in clinics. With the change in diet structure and the increase in life pressure, the prevalence rate increases year by year. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the location of the disease of constipation is in the large intestine, which is related to the dysfunction of lung, spleen, liver, kidney and other viscera. Its pathogenesis is conductive dysfunction of large intestine. Based on the theory, Shouhui Tongbian Capsule (SHTB) is composed of eight traditional Chinese medicines, including Polygoni multiflori Radix (Heshouwu in Chinese), Aloe (Luhui in Chinese), Cassiae Semen (Juemingzi in Chinese), Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma (Renshen in Chinese), Lycii Fructus (Gouqizi in Chinese), Asini Corii Colla (Ejiao in Chinese), Aurantii Fructus Immaturus (Zhishi in Chinese), and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (Baizhu in Chinese), which could help to release excessive turbid, and nourishing yin and supplementing qi in the treatment. This study has been carried out to review the latest advances of SHTB in the treatment of constipation. The results showed that significant effect of SHTB was found in the treatment of constipation, such as functional constipation, and constipation associated with tumor chemotherapy, colitis, type 2 diabetes and chronic cardiac failure. Besides, obvious adverse reactions were not observed. SHTB could effectively treat five types of constipation, provide direction for the future exploration of SHTB in the treatment of other types of constipation.
    Abstract:
    Traditional Chinese herbal medicines not only cure human diseases, but also play an important role as insecticides. Compared with conventional chemical agents, traditional Chinese herbal medicines are characterized by low toxicity, low residues, and being eco friendly, and they have become a research hotspot. Traditional Chinese herbal medicines have tremendous flexibility and indefinite potential. Therefore, this paper reviewed the types of insecticides belonging to traditional Chinese herbal medicines in Inner Mongolia, China, including their traditional uses, secondary metabolites, biological activities, action mechanisms, application methods, and development status. In addition, the most relevant issues involved in the development of traditional Chinese herbal medicines was discussed. We believe that traditional Chinese herbal medicines can be better implemented and developed; such that its other advantages, such as an insect repellent, can be promoted. Moreover, this study lays a solid foundation for further research on traditional Chinese herbal medicines in Inner Mongolia, China.
    Abstract:
    Objective: Rosa odorata var. gigantea is a popular medicinal plant. Some studies have demonstrated that ethanolic extract of the fruits of R. odorata var. gigantea (FOE) has gastroprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the gastroprotective activity of FOE on water immersion restrained stress (WIRS)-induced gastric mucosal injury in a rat model and elucidate the possible molecular mechanisms involved. Methods: A rat stress ulcer model was established in this study using WIRS. After rats were treated with FOE orally for 7 d, the effect of FOE treatment was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and the changes of inflammatory factors, oxidative stress factors, and gastric-specific regulatory factors and pepsin in the blood and gastric tissues of rats were examined by ELISA assay. Molecular mechanism of FOE was investigated by immunohistochemical assay and Western blot. Results: Compared with the WIRS group, FOE could diminish both the macroscopic and microscopic pathological morphology of gastric mucosa. FOE significantly preserved the antioxidants glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) contents; anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-10 (IL-10) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels as well as regulatory factors tumor necrosis factor-α (TGF-α) and somatostatin (SS) contents, while decreasing malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), gastrin (GAS) and endothelin (ET) levels. Moreover, FOE distinctly upregulated the expression of Nrf2, HO-1, Bcl2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In addition, FOE activated the expression of p-EGFR and downregulated the expression of NF-jB, Bax, Cleaved-caspase-3, Cyto-C and Cleaved-PARP1, thus promoting gastric mucosal cell survival. Conclusion: The current work demonstrated that FOE exerted a gastroprotective activity against gastric mucosal injury induced by WIRS. The underlying mechanism might be associated with the improvement of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation and anti-apoptosis systems.
    Abstract:
    Objective: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory and destructive arthritis, characterized by inflammatory infiltration and bone destruction. Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu Decoction (HGWD) is traditional Chinese medicine, which has been applied in the treatment of RA in clinical. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of HGWD on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model. Methods: DBA/1J female mice were used to establish the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model. HGWD was administered intragastrically once a day for four weeks starting on the 22nd day after the first immunization. The body weight, hind paw thickness and clinical score were measured every five days. Gait analysis, histopathological staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), ultrasound imaging and micro-computed tomography imaging were performed to determine the effects of HGWD treatment on inflammation and bone structure in this model. Moreover, Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were used to detect inflammatory factors mRNA and protein levels after HGWD intervention in RAW 264.7 cells. Results: HGWD attenuated symptoms of arthritis, suppressed inflammatory synovium area and the serum levels of inflammatory factors, inhibited joint space enlargement in the knee and ankle joints, reduced numbers of osteoclasts, protected bone destruction, as well as improved motor function. HGWD decreased the expression of mRNA for inflammatory factors and the protein expression levels of p-NF-κB and IL-17. Conclusion: These results suggested that HGWD suppresses inflammation, attenuates bone erosion and maintains motor function in collagen-induced arthritis mice.
    Abstract:
    Objective: Myocardial infarction (MI) is linked to an imbalance in the supply and demand of blood oxygen in the heart muscles. Beta-blockers and calcium antagonists are just two of the common medications used to treat MI. However, these have reportedly been shown to be either ineffective or to have undesirable side effects. Extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (GBE), a Chinese herbal product offers special compatibility benefits in therapeutic settings relating to inflammatory diseases and oxidative stress. In order to better understand how GBE affects MI in rats insulted by isoprenaline (ISO), the current study was designed. Methods: The heart weight index, serum lipid profile, cardiac marker enzymes, endogenous antioxidants [catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), nitrites and malondialdehyde (MDA)], inflammatory mediators [tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)], immunohistochemical expressions of B-cell lymphoma factor-2 (Bcl-2), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and histopathological analysis were used to assess the cardioprotective properties of GBE. Results: The findings showed that GBE effectively attenuated myocardial infarction by boosting the body’s natural antioxidant defense system and reducing the release of inflammatory cytokines as well as heart injury marker enzymes. The expression of Bcl-2, ERK1/2 and mTOR was increased while the histomorphological alterations were reversed. Conclusion: The cardioprotective effects of GBE may be due to a mechanism involving increased Bcl-2/ mTOR/ERK1/2/Na+, K+-ATPase activity.
    2024,16(2):293-300, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective: To clear the amounts of the principal active/toxic components in herbs containing aristolochic acids (HCAAs), which are still used as medicine and/or seasoning in many ethnic minority areas of China. Methods: In this study, six major active and toxic components in HCAAs were extracted with ultrasonic extraction. With 6-O-methyl guanosine as internal standard, the target compounds were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) with multiple reaction monitoringinformation dependent acquisition-enhanced production ion scanning mode (MRM-IDA-EPI) combined with dynamic background subtraction (DBS) function. Results: The method showed good linearity in the linear range of the six analytes. The limit range of detection was from 0.01 ng/mL to 0.27 ng/mL. All of the detection repeatability, extraction repeatability and accuracy of the method were good. After extraction, the samples remained stable at 15℃ within 24 h. Six analytes were all found in samples except aristolactam (AL) in sample 2, and the contents varied greatly. The contents of these compounds decreased in fruits, leaves and stems of Aristolochia delavayi successively. Conclusion: This method has the advantages of less sample dosage, simple operation, short analysis cycle, high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. It laid a good foundation for guiding the safety of HCAAs, the indepth study of pharmacological and toxicological effects and the scientific and standardized processing and compatibility of HCAAs.
    Abstract:
    Objective: A typical case of Xianling Gubao (XLGB) Tablets-induced liver injury was systematically studied in the clinic and the laboratory. Methods: A patient with herb-induced liver injury (HILI) and a history of taking XLGB Tablets before disease onset was engaged as the study subject, and the case was diagnosed according to the updated Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) and the integrated evidence chain (iEC) method recommended by the Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Herb-induced Liver Injury (HILI Guidelines). Results: Clinical history, biochemical indexes and imaging tests were used to exclude the influence of fundamental diseases and confusing liver diseases such as viral, alcoholic and autoimmune liver diseases on the diagnosis. Based on an investigation of the patient’s medication history, she was suspected to have HILI caused by XLGB Tablets, as the patient was only taking an oral preparation of XLGB Tablets, and the influence of other drugs on the diagnosis was excluded. This patient with alanine aminotransferase (ALT)≥ 3× upper limit of normal (ULN) and a calculated R of 6 was diagnosed with possible acute drug-induced hepatocellular injury. The relationship was considered ‘‘highly probable” (score of 9) using the updated RUCAM of 2016. Moreover, the fingerprint similarity between the preparation taken by the patient and a commercially available preparation was 0.99, suggesting that the patient was consuming XLGB Tablets rather than another drug. LC-MS technology and the Agilent Fake TCM-Drugs database were used to investigate the drug, and no chemical additions were found. Examination of the drug for pesticide residues, heavy metals, aflatoxins and other exogenous substances indicated compliance with the content limits of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Conclusion: In summary, the final diagnosis of XLGB-induced liver injury reached the clinical diagnosis of HILI and was acute severe hepatocellular injury type by the updated RUCAM and iEC. Therefore, this study provides scientific evidence regarding the causality evaluation of compound preparations of traditional Chinese medicines-induced liver injury.
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    2011,3(2):140-143, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.02.009
    [Abstract] (2275) [HTML] (0) [PDF 142.79 K] (19802)
    Abstract:
    Objective To study a novel feature extraction method of Chinese materia medica (CMM) fingerprint. Methods On the basis of the radar graphical presentation theory of multivariate, the radar map was used to figure the non-map parameters of the CMM fingerprint, then to extract the map features and to propose the feature fusion. Results Better performance was achieved when using this method to test data. Conclusion This shows that the feature extraction based on radar chart presentation can mine the valuable features that facilitate the identification of Chinese medicine.
    2012,4(1):63-69, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2012.01.010
    [Abstract] (2088) [HTML] (0) [PDF 160.29 K] (12490)
    Abstract:
    Objective To identify and analyze the volatile constituents in the leaves and fruits of Ficus carica. Methods Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used. Results The major components detected in volatile oil of the leaves were psoralen (10.12%), β-damascenone (10.17%), benzyl alcohol (4.56%), behenic acid (4.79%), and bergapten (1.99%), etc. The major components detected in volatile oil of the fruits were furfural (10.55%), 5-methyl-2-furaldehyde (10.1%), and benzeneacetaldehyde (6.59%), etc. Conclusion A total of 121 volatile constituents are identified in the leaves and 108 in the fruits of F. carica, among which 103 constituents are identified for the first time in the leaves and 100 in the fruits. Eighteen volatile constituents are identified in both leaves and fruits.
    2010,2(4):272-288, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.04.005
    [Abstract] (3960) [HTML] (0) [PDF 307.65 K] (11389)
    Abstract:
    Callicarpa Linn. (beautyberry) is one of the major genera in Verbenaceous, about 20 of which are medicinal plants. Beautyberry, called Zizhu in China, is a generic name of those species and largely used as hemostatic medicine. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 has admitted three new crude drugs from the genus of Callicarpa Linn. including Callicarpae Macrophyllae Folium, Callicarpae Caulis et Folium, and Callicarpae Formosanae Folium for the first time since the 1977 version of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. In order to better understand these new crude drugs, we systematically described their bibliography, admission reasons, botanical identification, chemistry, and pharmacology. Several other species, out of national regulations but intensively studied and widely used, are also covered in this review.
    2012,4(3):245-251, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2012.03.012
    [Abstract] (2874) [HTML] (0) [PDF 221.06 K] (11370)
    Abstract:
    Objective Establishing a ?ngerprint method to identify the characteristic chemicals in the roots of Gentiana macrophylla and evaluate their quality. Methods RP-HPLC was developed for ?ngerprint analysis and determination of four ingredients in G. macrophylla roots from different sources. LC-ESI-TOF-MS was employed to identify the chromatographic peaks of the ?ngerprint. Results Five common peaks were identified by comparing their retention time with reference secoiridoid glucosides. Eight major peaks in chromatographic fingerprint were analyzed by on-line LC-ESI-TOF-MS. Four secoiridoid glucosides were identified based on their MS data. Conclusion The method is specific and could be served for the quality identi?cation and comprehensive evaluation of G. macrophylla.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (2659) [HTML] (0) [PDF 503.58 K] (11313)
    Abstract:
    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has developed over thousands of years and has accumulated abundant clinical experience, forming a comprehensive and unique medical system. Emerging evidence has begun to illustrate TCM as an area of important medical rediscoveries. This paper briefly introduced the concept, significance, and technology of network pharmacology based on network biology and systems biology. It focused on the theoretical system and potential prospect of TCM network applied in TCM research and development including predicting new drug targets, action mechanism, new drug discovery; evaluating pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, safety, toxicology, quality control, and bioinformatics of drugs. We also discussed the opportunities and challenges in the development and application of network pharmacology in the modernization of TCM research.
    [Abstract] (2899) [HTML] (0) [PDF 583.26 K] (11051)
    Abstract:
    Rhubarb is a perennial herb belonging to the genus Rheum L. (Polygonaceae). Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (rhubarb roots and rhizomes) is one of the most popular Chinese materia medica and has been widely used for strong laxative function. About 200 compounds with six different types of skeletons (anthraquinone, anthrone, stilbene, flavonoids, acylglucoside, and pyrone) have so far been isolated from eighteen species of the genus Rheum L. These constituents showed extensive pharmacological activities including cathartic, diuretic, anticancer, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects, as well as toxicological effects. Chemical fingerprint, LC-MS, and other analytical techniques have been used for the quality control of rhubarb. This comprehensive review summarizes the researches into the isolation, pharmacological activities, and phytochemical analysis reported since investigations began in the late 1940s. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies and clinical application of rhubarb are also discussed in present paper.
    2016,8(3):196-208, DOI: 10.1016/S1674-6384(16)60043-6
    [Abstract] (1350) [HTML] (0) [PDF 311.21 K] (10465)
    Abstract:
    Chinese Pharmacopoeia is updated every five years, of which traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is the most important part. The 2015 version completed by the 10th Pharmacopoeia Commission has come into operation since December 1, 2015. Here we introduced the revision and improvement of quality evaluation and control standards of TCMs in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015.
    [Abstract] (4272) [HTML] (0) [PDF 469.82 K] (10382)
    Abstract:
    This review is briefly to recall the history of research and development (R&D) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and to discuss the challenges of Chinese traditional and herbal medicines (CTHM) facing the modern science and technology. The R&D of CTHM is thought to be an important pathway for new drug discovery. Since1949, about 140 approved new drugs have been developed, among which about 80 originated directly or indirectly from medicinal plants. CTHM has gained interest from the international medical, biomedical, and pharmaceutical institutions as a valuable source of potential medicines. For the modernization of CMM and innovative research of CTHM, there are following challenges to be faced: (1) to evaluate the efficacy, pharmacological properties, action mechanism, and active chemical constituents; (2) to develop new methodologies for the quality and safety of CTHM; (3) to apply new “-omics” techniques to accelerate drug discoveries developed from CTHM; and (4) to apply international practices including good agricultural practice, good manufacturing practice, good laboratory practice, and good clinical practice in the R&D of CTHM.
    2010,2(4):250-261, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.04.003
    [Abstract] (3348) [HTML] (0) [PDF 401.07 K] (9716)
    Abstract:
    For the protection of consumers and developments of relevant industry, authentication of medicinal plants is a critical issue. This review covers various aspects of authentication methods and techniques based on molecular biology and genomics with special emphasis on molecular biology techniques including genome-based authentication, microchip-based authentication, DNA barcoding, and their applications.
    2010,2(2):148-152, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.02.010
    [Abstract] (4270) [HTML] (0) [PDF 215.71 K] (9665)
    Abstract:
    Objective To develop an efficient method to isolate and purify the main components isoaloeresin D and aloin from Aloe vera for its industrial production. Methods High-speed counter-current chromatography was used to isolate isoaloeresin D and aloin in a one-step separation from dried crude extract of A. vera. The biphasic solvent system composed of hexane-ethyl acetate-acetone-water (0.2︰5︰1.5︰5) was used at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, while the lipophilic phase was selected as the mobile phase and the apparatus was rotated at 840 r/min. The effluent was detected at 254 nm. Results Isoaloeresin D (53.1 mg) and aloin (106.9 mg) were separated from the crude extract (384.7 mg) with the purities of 98.6% and 99.5%, respectively. Conclusion HSCCC is a powerful technique for isolation and separation of chemical composition from aloe.
    2011,3(2):150-155, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.02.011
    [Abstract] (3374) [HTML] (0) [PDF 157.86 K] (9172)
    Abstract:
    Objective Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is widely used as a spice in cooking and as a medicinal herb in traditional herbal medicine. The present study was to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ginger oil in experimental animal models. Methods The analgesic effect of the oils was evaluated by the “acetic acid” and “hot-plate” test models of pain in mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of the oil was investigated in rats, using rat paw edema induced by carrageenan, adjuvant arthritis, and vascular permeability induced by bradykinin, arachidonic acid, and histamine. Indomethacin (1 mg/kg), Aspirin (0.5 g/kg) and Dexamethasone (2.5 mg/kg) were used respectively as reference drugs for comparison. Results The ginger oil (0.25-1.0 g/kg) produced significant analgesic effect against chemically- and thermally-induced nociceptive pain stimuli in mice (P < 0.05, 0.01). And the ginger oil (0.25-1.0 g/kg) also significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema, adjuvant arthritis, and inflammatory mediators-induced vascular permeability in rats (P < 0.05, 0.001). Conclusion These findings confirm that the ginger oil can be used to treat pain and chronic inflammation such as rheumatic arthritis.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (2377) [HTML] (0) [PDF 273.72 K] (8876)
    Abstract:
    Cistanches Herba, a famous traditional Chinese materia medica, has a laudatory title “desert ginseng”. According to Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2000, Cistanches Herba is the dry fleshy stem with scale-like leaves of Cistanche deserticola. In order to expand the drug source, Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2005 increased the plants in Cistanche Hoffmg. et Link (Orobanchaceae), C. tubulosa, and dry scaly leaf succulent stems were as genuine Cistanches Herba and still in use. In order to have more comprehensive understanding on Cistanches Herba, this paper focuses the reviews on the biological characteristics, chemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of Cistanches Herba, and its development prospects are looked forward. It provides the relative theoretical basis for the subsequent research work of Cistanches Herba and can be conducive to the development and utilization of Cistanches Herba.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (2144) [HTML] (0) [PDF 324.52 K] (8665)
    Abstract:
    Objective To predict the total flavonoids concentration of Aurantii Fructus fried with bran in its extraction process. Methods Ultraviolet spectrophotometry was used to determine the concentration of total flavonoids in different extraction time (t ) and solvent load (M ). Then the predicted procedure was carried out using the following data: 1) based on Ficks second law, the parameters of the kinetic model could be deduced and the equation was established; 2) Locally weighted regression (LWR) code was developed in the WEKA software environment to predict the concentration. And then we used both methods to predict the concentration of total flavonoids in new experiments. Results After comparing the predicted results with the experimental data, the LWR model had better accuracy and performance in the prediction. Conclusion LWR is applied to analyze the extraction process of Chinese herb for the first time, and it is totally fit for the extraction. LWR-based system is a more simple and accurate way to predict than the established equation. It is a good choice especially for a process which exists no clearly rules, and can be used in the real-time control during the process.
    2010,2(2):81-105, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.02.001
    [Abstract] (3465) [HTML] (0) [PDF 822.05 K] (8478)
    Abstract:
    Objective The 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (ACPC) is a natural micromolecule non-protein amino acid that exists only in plants. Despite the determination of its regulating effects on plants, several bioactivities and effects on animals or humans are still unclear. This review focuses the pharmaceutical effects,above all, the neuroprotective effects of ACPC on the cerebro- and cardiovascular system. Methods Two hundred and seventy nine studies were selected and identified from a total of 2457 references in Medline and Chemical Abstracts from 1957 to 2008. Only 38 articles on neuroprotective effects of ACPC from seven different countries qualified to be included in the analysis. Results ACPC has altogether following six general neuroprotective effects on the brain and nervous system: anti-neurotoxicity induced by NMDA, dynorphin-A, glutamate, and morphine; protection from cerebral neurological injury induced by ischemia; antidepressant and anxiolytic effects; anti-convulsion and -seizures and control of epilepsy; facilitation of spatial learning and memory; and the effect of reducing alcohol consumption. Conclusion ACPC has shown a variety of effects on plants and animals. The bioactivities and pharmaceutical effects on animals are of great significance to medical research and public health. Further clinical trials or epidemiological studies are needed to determine its effect in humans. Food intervention with ACPC-rich vegetables and fruits may be a suitable therapy for cerebro- and cardiovascular system diseases. Administration of trace exogenous ACPC could produce vegetables and fruits of rich endogenous ACPC.
    2011,3(2):117-126, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.02.006
    [Abstract] (4444) [HTML] (0) [PDF 211.05 K] (8438)
    Abstract:
    The reports on chemical constituents of Hyoscyamus niger were summarized. The compounds include alkaloids, saponins, lignans, coumarinolignans, flavonoids, and some other nonalkaloidal compounds. TLC, HPLC, and GC were used for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of some chemical constituents in H. niger. Modern pharmacological experiments showed that H. niger had the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anticonvulsant, spasmolytic, antidiarrhoeal, antisecretory, bronchodilatory, urinary bladder relaxant, hypotensive, cardiosuppressant, vasodilator, antitumor, and feeding deterrent properties. In addition, the toxicities of this medicinal plant were also described.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (2402) [HTML] (0) [PDF 488.37 K] (8158)
    Abstract:
    Bentysrepinine (Y101), a derivative of repensine, is a novel di-peptide structure isolated from Dichondra repens. In vitro and in vivo tests exhibited that bentysrepinine markedly inhibited DNA-HBV and cccDNA activities. The binding mode of Y101 and repensine with DNA polymerase was driven by hydrophobic interactions. This might provide novel recognition of inhibitory effect of Y101 against HBV, though its inhibition mechanism needs to be validated by bio-assay at cellular level and of polymerase activity. Preliminary docking study suggested that Y101 might be able to inhibit HIV inverse transcriptase, also have the potential to interact with DNA polymerase and HCV NS5B polymerase.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (1990) [HTML] (0) [PDF 299.63 K] (7999)
    Abstract:
    The inception of network pharmacology comes from the advance in “multi-target, multi-drug” paradigm and opens up a new field for pharmaceutical science. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is well-known for its use of medicinal herb combinations to treat the functional disorders induced by diseases through a holistic view, which naturally followed the principal of network pharmacology. In this review, the methodologies of network pharmacology in TCM studies were summarized. Specifically, the methodologies for network construction and network analysis were detailed by following several TCM study cases followed. The perspectives for TCM network pharmacology were also provided.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (1978) [HTML] (0) [PDF 360.32 K] (7717)
    Abstract:
    Objective A reversed-phase HPLC method was established for the simultaneous determination of five hydrophilic and lipophilic components in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Methods Hydrophilic components including danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, and salvianolic acid B, and lipophilic components such as cryptotanshinone and tanshinone IIA, were successfully separated on a Waters Symmetry C18 reverse- phase column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm), with acetonitrile-0.5% phosphoric acid (gradient elution) as mobile phase, the detection wavelength was set at 281 nm with flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, and the column temperature was maintained at 30 °C. Results The recovery of the method was in the range of 95.1%–102.5% and the precision was less than 3% for all five analytes. All the compounds showed good linearity (R2 > 0.9990) in a relatively wide concentration range. Therefore, this HPLC method demonstrated good reproducibility, stability, and accuracy in validation studies. Conclusion Simultaneous quanti?cation of the multiple components by HPLC would be a better strategy for the quality evaluation on the roots of S. miltiorrhiza.
    2010,2(3):180-188, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.03.004
    [Abstract] (2352) [HTML] (0) [PDF 265.22 K] (7478)
    Abstract:
    The publications on the journal of Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs in Vol.40, 2009 are briefly reviewed in the categories of chemical constituents, preparations and technologies, analysis and quality control, pharmacological and clinical studies, reviews, and finally healthy principles. Some comments, especially for hot topics have been personally provided.

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