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    Abstract:
    To promote the development of extracellular vesicles of herbal medicine especially the establishment of standardization, led by the National Expert Committee on Research and Application of Chinese Herbal Vesicles, research experts in the field of herbal medicine and extracellular vesicles were invited nationwide with the support of the Expert Committee on Research and Application of Chinese Herbal Vesicles, Professional Committee on Extracellular Vesicle Research and Application, Chinese Society of Research Hospitals and the Guangdong Engineering Research Center of Chinese Herbal Vesicles. Based on the collation of relevant literature, we have adopted the Delphi method, the consensus meeting method combined with the nominal group method to form a discussion draft of "Consensus statement on research and application of Chinese herbal medicine derived extracellular vesicles-like particles (2023)". The first draft was discussed in online and offline meetings on October 12, 14, November 2, 2022 and April and May 2023 on the current status of research, nomenclature, isolation methods, quality standards and research applications of extracellular vesicles of Chinese herbal medicines, and 13 consensus opinions were finally formed. At the Third Academic Conference on Research and Application of Chinese Herbal Vesicles, held on May 26, 2023, Kewei Zhao, convenor of the consensus, presented and read the consensus to the experts of the Expert Committee on Research and Application of Chinese Herbal Vesicles. The consensus highlights the characteristics and advantages of Chinese medicine, inherits the essence, and keeps the righteousness and innovation, aiming to provide a reference for colleagues engaged in research and application of Chinese herbal vesicles at home and abroad, decode the mystery behind Chinese herbal vesicles together, establish a safe, effective and controllable accurate Chinese herbal vesicle prevention and treatment system, and build a bridge for Chinese medicine to the world.
    Abstract:
    Medicinal plants are a valuable source of essential medicines and herbal products for healthcare and disease therapy. Compared with chemical synthesis and extraction, the biosynthesis of natural products is a very promising alternative for the successful conservation of medicinal plants, and its rapid development will greatly facilitate the conservation and sustainable utilization of medicinal plants. Here, we summarize the advances in strategies and methods concerning the biosynthesis and production of natural products of medicinal plants. The strategies and methods mainly include genetic engineering, plant cell culture engineering, metabolic engineering, and synthetic biology based on multiple ‘‘OMICS” technologies, with paradigms for the biosynthesis of terpenoids and alkaloids. We also highlight the biosynthetic approaches and discuss progress in the production of some valuable natural products, exemplifying compounds such as vindoline (alkaloid), artemisinin and paclitaxel (terpenoids), to illustrate the power of biotechnology in medicinal plants.
    Abstract:
    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) possess a rich historical background, unique theoretical framework, remarkable therapeutic efficacy, and abundant resources. However, the modernization and internationalization of TCMs have faced significant obstacles due to their diverse ingredients and unknown mechanisms. To gain deeper insights into the phytochemicals and ensure the quality control of TCMs, there is an urgent need to enhance analytical techniques. Currently, two-dimensional (2D) chromatography, which incorporates two independent separation mechanisms, demonstrates superior separation capabilities compared to the traditional one-dimensional (1D) separation system when analyzing TCMs samples. Over the past decade, new techniques have been continuously developed to gain actionable insights from complex samples. This review presents the recent advancements in the application of multidimensional chromatography for the quality evaluation of TCMs, encompassing 2D-gas chromatography (GC), 2D-liquid chromatography (LC), as well as emerging three-dimensional (3D)-GC, 3D-LC, and their associated data-processing approaches. These studies highlight the promising potential of multidimensional chromatographic separation for future phytochemical analysis. Nevertheless, the increased separation capability has resulted in higher-order data sets and greater demands for data-processing tools. Considering that multidimensional chromatography is still a relatively nascent research field, further hardware enhancements and the implementation of chemometric methods are necessary to foster its robust development.
    Abstract:
    The mild-natured and bitter-flavored traditional Chinese medicines (MB-TCMs) are an important class of TCMs that have been widely used in clinical practice and recognized as safe long-term treatments for chronic diseases. However, as an important class of TCMs, the panorama of pharmacological effects and the mechanisms of MB-TCMs have not been systemically reviewed. Compelling studies have shown that gut microbiota can mediate the therapeutic activity of TCMs and help to elucidate the core principles of TCM medicinal theory. In this systematic review, we found that MB-TCMs commonly participated in the modulation of metabolic syndrome, intestinal inflammation, nervous system disease and cardiovascular system disease in association with promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria Bacteroides, Akkermansia, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Roseburia as well as inhibiting the proliferation of harmful bacteria Helicobacter, Enterococcus, Desulfovibrio and Escherichia-Shigella. These alterations, correspondingly, enhance the generation of protective metabolites, mainly including short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), bile acid (BAs), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), indole and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and inhibit the generation of harmful metabolites, such as proinflammatory factors trimethylamine oxide (TAMO) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), to further exert multiplicative effects for the maintenance of human health through several different signaling pathways. Altogether, this present review has attempted to comprehensively summarize the relationship between MB-TCMs and gut microbiota by establishing the TCMs-gut microbiota-metabolite-signaling pathway-diseases axis, which may provide new insight into the study of TCM medicinal theories and their clinical applications.
    Abstract:
    As a common clinical disease, fracture is often accompanied by pain, swelling, bleeding as well as other symptoms and has a high disability rate, even threatening life, seriously endangering patients’ physical and psychological health and quality of life. Medical practitioners take many strategies for the treatment of fracture healing, including Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). In the early stage of fracture healing, the local fracture is often in a state of hypoxia, accompanied by the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which is beneficial to wound healing. Through literature mining, we thought that hypoxia, HIF-1α and downstream factors affected the mechanism of fracture healing, as well as dominated this process. Therefore, we reviewed the local characteristics and related signaling pathways involved in the fracture healing process and summarized the intervention of TCM on these mechanisms, in order to inspirit the new strategy for fracture healing, as well as elaborate on the possible principles of TCM in treating fractures based on the HIF molecular mechanism.
    Abstract:
    The seco-prezizaane-type sesquiterpenes (SPS), as a special class of sesquiterpenes with a highly oxidative five-ring cage structure and seven consecutive chiral centers, are isolated from the genus Illicium, which have a variety of biological activities, including neurotoxicity and neurotrophic effects, etc. This review summarizes the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of SPS, and discusses the potential trend and scope of future research.
    Abstract:
    Objective: Hepatic fibrosis has been widely considered as a conjoint consequence of almost all chronic liver diseases. Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuanxiong in Chinese, CX) is a traditional Chinese herbal product to prevent cerebrovascular, gynecologic and hepatic diseases. Our previous study found that CX extracts significantly reduced collagen contraction force of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Here, this study aimed to compare the protection of different CX extracts on bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced liver fibrosis and investigate plausible underlying mechanisms. Methods: The active compounds of CX extracts were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Network pharmacology was used to determine potential targets of CX against hepatic fibrosis. Bile duct hyperplasia and liver fibrosis were evaluated by serologic testing and histopathological evaluation. The expression of targets of interest was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and Western blot. Results: Different CX extracts were identified by tetramethylpyrazine, ferulic acid and senkyunolide A. Based on the network pharmacological analysis, 42 overlap targets were obtained via merging the candidates targets of CX and liver fibrosis. Different aqueous, alkaloid and phthalide extracts of CX (CXAE, CXAL and CXPHL) significantly inhibited diffuse severe bile duct hyperplasia and thus suppressed hepatic fibrosis by decreasing CCCTC binding factor (CTCF)-c-MYC-long non-coding RNA H19 (H19) pathway in the BDL induced mouse model. Meanwhile, CX extracts, especially CXAL and CXPHL also suppressed CTCF-c-MYC-H19 pathway and inhibited ductular reaction in cholangiocytes stimulated with taurocholate acid (TCA), lithocholic acid (LCA) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-b), as illustrated by decreased bile duct proliferation markers. Conclusion: Our data supported that different CX extracts, especially CXAL and CXPHL significantly alleviated hepatic fibrosis and bile duct hyperplasia via inhibiting CTCF-c-MYC-H19 pathway, providing novel insights into the anti-fibrotic mechanism of CX.
    Abstract:
    Objective: This study is designed to investigate the mode of action of the synergistic effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and magnolol against cervical cancer. Methods: Network pharmacological approach was applied to predict the molecular mechanism of 5-FU combined with magnolol against cervical cancer. CCK-8 assay, colony formation assay, immunofluorescence staining, adhesion assay, wound healing mobility assay, cell migration and invasion assay and Western blot analysis were conducted to validate the results of in silico study. Results: Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway was identified as the key pathway in silico study. The experimental results showed that 5-FU combined with magnolol strongly inhibited cervical cancer cell proliferation, induced the morphological change of HeLa cells by down-regulating the expression of a-actinin, tensin-2 and vinculin. Moreover, magnolol enhanced inhibitory effect of 5-FU on the cell adhesion, migration and invasion. The phosphorylation of AKT and PI3K and the expression of mTOR were strongly inhibited by the combination of 5-FU and magnolol. Moreover, the expression of E-cadherin and b-catenin was upregulated and the expression of Snail, Slug and vimentin was down regulated by the 5-FU together with magnolol. Conclusion: Taken together, this study suggests that 5-FU combined with magnolol exerts a synergistic anti-cervical cancer effect by regulating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) signaling pathways.
    Abstract:
    Objective: Anemoside B4 (AB4), the most abundant triterpenoidal saponin isolated from Pulsatilla chinensis, inhibited influenza virus FM1 or Klebsiella pneumoniae-induced pneumonia. However, the anti-SARSCoV-2 effect of AB4 has not been unraveled. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the antiviral activity and potential mechanism of AB4 in inhibiting human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in vivo and in vitro. Methods: The cytotoxicity of AB4 was evaluated using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) assay. SARS-CoV-2 infected HEK293T, HPAEpiC, and Vero E6 cells were used for in vitro assays. The antiviral effect of AB4 in vivo was evaluated by SARS-CoV-2-infected hACE2-IRES-luc transgenic mouse model. Furthermore, label-free quantitative proteomics and bioinformatic analysis were performed to explore the potential antiviral mechanism of action of AB4. Type I IFN signaling-associated proteins were assessed using Western blotting or immumohistochemical staining. Results: The data showed that AB4 reduced the propagation of SARS-CoV-2 along with the decreased Nucleocapsid protein (N), Spike protein (S), and 3C-like protease (3CLpro) in HEK293T cells. In vivo antiviral activity data revealed that AB4 inhibited viral replication and relieved pneumonia in a SARS-CoV-2 infected mouse model. We further disclosed that the antiviral activity of AB4 was associated with the enhanced interferon (IFN)-b response via the activation of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-1) like receptor (RLP) pathways. Additionally, label-free quantitative proteomic analyses discovered that 17 proteins were significantly altered by AB4 in the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus infections cells. These proteins mainly clustered in RNA metabolism. Conclusion: Our results indicated that AB4 inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication through the RLR pathways and moderated the RNA metabolism, suggesting that it would be a potential lead compound for the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs.
    Abstract:
    Objective: To assess acute toxicity, the in vitro and in vivo effects of methanol and ethyl acetate extracts (JME and JEE) of Jatonik polyherbal mixture on some mitochondria-related parameters and their effect on the activity of some liver enzymes. Methods: Acute toxicity of JME and JEE was determined using Lorke’s method. In vitro and in vivo opening of the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore (MMPT pore) was spectrophotometrically assayed. Production of malondialdehyde (MDA) as an index of lipid peroxidation and the activity of mitochondrial ATPase was evaluated in vitro and in vivo and the effect of JME and JEE on the activity of liver enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) and gammaglutamyl transferase (GGT)was also investigated. Results: JME had an LD50 of 3808 mg/kg b.w whereas JEE had an LD50 greater than 5000 mg/kg b.w. of rats. After the rats have been fed with both extracts, a photomicrograph of a piece of liver tissue showed no apparent symptoms of toxicity. From the in vitro and in vivo studies, both extracts prompted intact mitochondria to open their MMPT pores. When compared to the control, lipid peroxide product release and ATPase activity were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in vitro and in vivo. The activities of AST, ALT, and GGT were all reduced at 50 mg/kg when treated with JME, but the activity of AST was considerably enhanced when treated with JEE (P < 0.05). The results revealed that both JME and JEE of the Jatonik polyherbal mixture had low toxicity, profound MMPTpore induction, and enhanced ATPase activity, but an increased MDA production. Conclusion: Jatonik extracts may be a promising target for drug development in diseases where there is dysregulation of apoptosis, however, further studies are needed to better clarify the molecular mechanism involved in these phenomena.
    Abstract:
    Objective: Based on metabonomics technology of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR), the pharmacokinetic characteristics and therapeutic mechanism of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (RhRR, Dahuang in Chinese), Eupolyphaga Steleophaga (EuS, Tubiechong in Chinese) combined with RhRR acting on acute liver injury were explored. Methods: Models of acute liver injury were established, and the pharmacokinetic methods of five components of RhRR-EuS in rats were found by HPLC-MS/MS. The liver tissues of different groups of mice were analyzed by 1H NMR spectroscopy combined with multivariate statistical analysis to investigate the metabolomics of RhRR-EuS and RhRR. Results: Pharmacokinetic results showed there were different levels of bimodal phenomenon in different groups, and the absorption of free anthraquinone in RhRR increased after compatibility with EuS. In addition, the pathological state of acute liver injury in rats can selectively promote the absorption of emodin, chrysophanol, physcion and aloe emodin. Through 15 differential metabolites in the liver tissue of acute liver injury mice, it was revealed that RhRR-EuS and RhRR could protect the liver injury by regulating the metabolism of glutamine and glutamic acid, alanine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, and phosphoinositide. However, the regulation of RhRR was weaker than that of RhRR-EuS. Conclusion: For the first time, we studied the pharmacokinetics and metabolomics differences of RhRREuS and RhRR in rats and mice with acute liver injury, in order to provide theoretical reference for clinical treatment of liver disease by DHZCP.
    Abstract:
    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of Xiaoyao San (XYS), a herbal medicine formula, on exercise capacity and liver mitochondrial metabolomics in a rat model of depression induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Methods: A total of 24 male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group (C), CUMS control group (M), Venlafaxine positive treatment group (V), and XYS treatment group (X). Depressive behaviour and exercise capacity of rats were assessed by body weight, sugar-water preference test, open field test, pole test, and rotarod test. The liver mitochondria metabolomics were analyzed by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method. TCMSP database and GeneCards database were used to screen XYS for potential targets for depression, and GO and KEGG enrichment analyses were performed. Results: Compared with C group, rats in M group showed significantly lower body weight, sugar water preference rate, number of crossing and rearing in the open field test, climbing down time in the pole test, and retention time on the rotarod test (P < 0.01). The above behaviors and exercise capacity indices were significantly modulated in rats in V and X groups compared with M group (P < 0.05, 0.01). Compared with C group, a total of 18 different metabolites were changed in the liver mitochondria of rats in M group. Nine different metabolites and six metabolic pathways were regulated in the liver mitochondria of rats in X group compared with M group. The results of network pharmacology showed that 88 intersecting targets for depression and XYS were obtained, among which 15 key targets such as IL-1b, IL-6, and TNF were predicted to be the main differential targets for the treatment of depression. Additionally, a total of 1 553 GO signaling pathways and 181 KEGG signaling pathways were identified, and the main biological pathways were AGE-RAGE signaling pathway, HIF-1 signaling pathway, and calcium signaling pathway. Conclusion: XYS treatment could improve depressive symptoms, enhance exercise capacity, positively regulate the changes of mitochondrial metabolites and improve energy metabolism in the liver of depressed rats. These findings suggest that XYS exerts antidepressant effects through multi-target and multi-pathway.
    Abstract:
    Objective: Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR, Danggui in Chinese), Cistanches Herba (CH, Roucongrong in Chinese), Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma (PG, Renshen in Chinese), and Panacis Quinquefolii Radix (PQ, Xiyangshen in Chinese), widely used as medicine and dietary supplement around the world, are susceptible to fungal and mycotoxin contamination. In this study, we aim to analyze their fungal community by DNA metabarcoding. Methods: A total of 12 root samples were collected from three main production areas in China. The samples were divided into four groups based on herb species, including ASR, CH, PG, and PQ groups. The fungal community on the surface of four root groups was investigated through DNA metabarcoding via targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 region (ITS2). Results: All the 12 samples were detected with fungal contamination. Rhizopus (13.04%-74.03%), Aspergillus (1.76%-23.92%), and Fusarium (0.26%-15.27%) were the predominant genera. Ten important fungi were identified at the species level, including two potential toxigenic fungi (Penicillium citrinum and P. oxalicum) and eight human pathogenic fungi (Alternaria infectoria, Candida sake, Hyphopichia burtonii, Malassezia globosa, M. restricta, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and Ochroconis tshawytschae). Fungal community in ASR and CH groups was significantly different from other groups, while fungal community in PG and PQ groups was relatively similar. Conclusion: DNA metabarcoding revealed the fungal community in four important root herbs. This study provided an important reference for preventing root herbs against fungal and mycotoxin contamination.
    Abstract:
    Objective: To identify phytochemical constituents present in the extract of flowers of Xanthoceras sorbifolia and evaluate their anti-oxidant and anti-hyperglycemic capacities. Methods: The AlCl3 colorimetric method and Prussian Blue assay were used to determine the contents of total flavonoids and total phenolic acids in extraction layers, and the bioactive layers was screened through anti-oxidative activity in vitro. The Waters ACQUITY UPLC system and a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (2.0 mm × 150 mm, 5 μm) were used to identify the ingredients. And antioxidative ingredients were screened by off-line UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS-free radical scavenging. The ameliorative role of it was further evaluated in a high-fat, streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rat model and the study was carried out on NADPH oxidase (PDB ID: 2CDU) by molecular docking. Results: Combined with the results of activity screening in vitro, the anti-oxidative part was identified as the ethyl acetate layer. A total of 24 chemical constituents were identified by liquid chromatographymass spectrometry in the ethyl acetate layer and 13 main anti-oxidative active constituents were preliminarily screened out through off-line UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS-free radical scavenging. In vivo experiments showed that flowers of X. sorbifolia could significantly reduce the blood glucose level of diabetic mice and alleviate liver cell damage. Based on the results of docking analysis related to the identified phytocompounds and oxidase which involved in type 2 diabetes, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-Orhamnoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, and isoquercitrin showed a better inhibitory profile. Conclusion: The ethyl acetate layer was rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids and had significant antioxidant activity, which could prevent hyperglycemia. This observed activity profile suggested X. sorbifolia flowers as a promising new source of tea to develop alternative natural anti-diabetic products with a high safety margin.
    Abstract:
    Objective: Cultivated Cordyceps sinensis powder has been used as clinical drug and healthy food to nourish the lung and kidney, which solves the problem of serious shortage of wild C. sinensis. This study aims to explore the chemical components and compared their anti-fibrotic effects in cultivated C. sinensis. Methods: Nucleosides, sterols and polysaccharides were separated and purified from cultivated C. sinensis, and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and chemical chromogenic methods, respectively. In high glucose-induced rat mesangial cell models, fibronectin and type 1 collagen were used as evaluation indicators. Results: There were 10 kinds of nucleosides and one sterol in cultivated C. sinensis. The contents of nucleosides, sterols and polysaccharides in the cultivated C. sinensis were close to 2%, 0.55% and 4.4%, respectively. Furthermore, nucleoside, sterol and polysaccharide components exhibited varying degrees of antifibrotic activity. The nucleoside components and sterol components inhibited the expression of extracellular matrix more effectively in the three main components. Conclusion: Cultivated C. sinensis remains the similar compounds with the wild C. sinensis, and nucleosides and sterols may be the main active substances that contribute to its anti fibrotic effects. The project of this study may provide valuable information on further optimization of more effective remedies with few side effects based on cultivated C. sinensis.
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    2011,3(2):140-143, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.02.009
    [Abstract] (2262) [HTML] (0) [PDF 142.79 K] (19712)
    Abstract:
    Objective To study a novel feature extraction method of Chinese materia medica (CMM) fingerprint. Methods On the basis of the radar graphical presentation theory of multivariate, the radar map was used to figure the non-map parameters of the CMM fingerprint, then to extract the map features and to propose the feature fusion. Results Better performance was achieved when using this method to test data. Conclusion This shows that the feature extraction based on radar chart presentation can mine the valuable features that facilitate the identification of Chinese medicine.
    2012,4(1):63-69, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2012.01.010
    [Abstract] (2077) [HTML] (0) [PDF 160.29 K] (12432)
    Abstract:
    Objective To identify and analyze the volatile constituents in the leaves and fruits of Ficus carica. Methods Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used. Results The major components detected in volatile oil of the leaves were psoralen (10.12%), β-damascenone (10.17%), benzyl alcohol (4.56%), behenic acid (4.79%), and bergapten (1.99%), etc. The major components detected in volatile oil of the fruits were furfural (10.55%), 5-methyl-2-furaldehyde (10.1%), and benzeneacetaldehyde (6.59%), etc. Conclusion A total of 121 volatile constituents are identified in the leaves and 108 in the fruits of F. carica, among which 103 constituents are identified for the first time in the leaves and 100 in the fruits. Eighteen volatile constituents are identified in both leaves and fruits.
    2010,2(4):272-288, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.04.005
    [Abstract] (3938) [HTML] (0) [PDF 307.65 K] (11332)
    Abstract:
    Callicarpa Linn. (beautyberry) is one of the major genera in Verbenaceous, about 20 of which are medicinal plants. Beautyberry, called Zizhu in China, is a generic name of those species and largely used as hemostatic medicine. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 has admitted three new crude drugs from the genus of Callicarpa Linn. including Callicarpae Macrophyllae Folium, Callicarpae Caulis et Folium, and Callicarpae Formosanae Folium for the first time since the 1977 version of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. In order to better understand these new crude drugs, we systematically described their bibliography, admission reasons, botanical identification, chemistry, and pharmacology. Several other species, out of national regulations but intensively studied and widely used, are also covered in this review.
    2012,4(3):245-251, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2012.03.012
    [Abstract] (2859) [HTML] (0) [PDF 221.06 K] (11294)
    Abstract:
    Objective Establishing a ?ngerprint method to identify the characteristic chemicals in the roots of Gentiana macrophylla and evaluate their quality. Methods RP-HPLC was developed for ?ngerprint analysis and determination of four ingredients in G. macrophylla roots from different sources. LC-ESI-TOF-MS was employed to identify the chromatographic peaks of the ?ngerprint. Results Five common peaks were identified by comparing their retention time with reference secoiridoid glucosides. Eight major peaks in chromatographic fingerprint were analyzed by on-line LC-ESI-TOF-MS. Four secoiridoid glucosides were identified based on their MS data. Conclusion The method is specific and could be served for the quality identi?cation and comprehensive evaluation of G. macrophylla.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (2633) [HTML] (0) [PDF 503.58 K] (11254)
    Abstract:
    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has developed over thousands of years and has accumulated abundant clinical experience, forming a comprehensive and unique medical system. Emerging evidence has begun to illustrate TCM as an area of important medical rediscoveries. This paper briefly introduced the concept, significance, and technology of network pharmacology based on network biology and systems biology. It focused on the theoretical system and potential prospect of TCM network applied in TCM research and development including predicting new drug targets, action mechanism, new drug discovery; evaluating pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, safety, toxicology, quality control, and bioinformatics of drugs. We also discussed the opportunities and challenges in the development and application of network pharmacology in the modernization of TCM research.
    [Abstract] (2859) [HTML] (0) [PDF 583.26 K] (10977)
    Abstract:
    Rhubarb is a perennial herb belonging to the genus Rheum L. (Polygonaceae). Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (rhubarb roots and rhizomes) is one of the most popular Chinese materia medica and has been widely used for strong laxative function. About 200 compounds with six different types of skeletons (anthraquinone, anthrone, stilbene, flavonoids, acylglucoside, and pyrone) have so far been isolated from eighteen species of the genus Rheum L. These constituents showed extensive pharmacological activities including cathartic, diuretic, anticancer, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects, as well as toxicological effects. Chemical fingerprint, LC-MS, and other analytical techniques have been used for the quality control of rhubarb. This comprehensive review summarizes the researches into the isolation, pharmacological activities, and phytochemical analysis reported since investigations began in the late 1940s. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies and clinical application of rhubarb are also discussed in present paper.
    2016,8(3):196-208, DOI: 10.1016/S1674-6384(16)60043-6
    [Abstract] (1320) [HTML] (0) [PDF 311.21 K] (10440)
    Abstract:
    Chinese Pharmacopoeia is updated every five years, of which traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is the most important part. The 2015 version completed by the 10th Pharmacopoeia Commission has come into operation since December 1, 2015. Here we introduced the revision and improvement of quality evaluation and control standards of TCMs in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015.
    [Abstract] (4222) [HTML] (0) [PDF 469.82 K] (10224)
    Abstract:
    This review is briefly to recall the history of research and development (R&D) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and to discuss the challenges of Chinese traditional and herbal medicines (CTHM) facing the modern science and technology. The R&D of CTHM is thought to be an important pathway for new drug discovery. Since1949, about 140 approved new drugs have been developed, among which about 80 originated directly or indirectly from medicinal plants. CTHM has gained interest from the international medical, biomedical, and pharmaceutical institutions as a valuable source of potential medicines. For the modernization of CMM and innovative research of CTHM, there are following challenges to be faced: (1) to evaluate the efficacy, pharmacological properties, action mechanism, and active chemical constituents; (2) to develop new methodologies for the quality and safety of CTHM; (3) to apply new “-omics” techniques to accelerate drug discoveries developed from CTHM; and (4) to apply international practices including good agricultural practice, good manufacturing practice, good laboratory practice, and good clinical practice in the R&D of CTHM.
    2010,2(4):250-261, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.04.003
    [Abstract] (3321) [HTML] (0) [PDF 401.07 K] (9675)
    Abstract:
    For the protection of consumers and developments of relevant industry, authentication of medicinal plants is a critical issue. This review covers various aspects of authentication methods and techniques based on molecular biology and genomics with special emphasis on molecular biology techniques including genome-based authentication, microchip-based authentication, DNA barcoding, and their applications.
    2010,2(2):148-152, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.02.010
    [Abstract] (4222) [HTML] (0) [PDF 215.71 K] (9605)
    Abstract:
    Objective To develop an efficient method to isolate and purify the main components isoaloeresin D and aloin from Aloe vera for its industrial production. Methods High-speed counter-current chromatography was used to isolate isoaloeresin D and aloin in a one-step separation from dried crude extract of A. vera. The biphasic solvent system composed of hexane-ethyl acetate-acetone-water (0.2︰5︰1.5︰5) was used at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, while the lipophilic phase was selected as the mobile phase and the apparatus was rotated at 840 r/min. The effluent was detected at 254 nm. Results Isoaloeresin D (53.1 mg) and aloin (106.9 mg) were separated from the crude extract (384.7 mg) with the purities of 98.6% and 99.5%, respectively. Conclusion HSCCC is a powerful technique for isolation and separation of chemical composition from aloe.
    2011,3(2):150-155, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.02.011
    [Abstract] (3330) [HTML] (0) [PDF 157.86 K] (9118)
    Abstract:
    Objective Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is widely used as a spice in cooking and as a medicinal herb in traditional herbal medicine. The present study was to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ginger oil in experimental animal models. Methods The analgesic effect of the oils was evaluated by the “acetic acid” and “hot-plate” test models of pain in mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of the oil was investigated in rats, using rat paw edema induced by carrageenan, adjuvant arthritis, and vascular permeability induced by bradykinin, arachidonic acid, and histamine. Indomethacin (1 mg/kg), Aspirin (0.5 g/kg) and Dexamethasone (2.5 mg/kg) were used respectively as reference drugs for comparison. Results The ginger oil (0.25-1.0 g/kg) produced significant analgesic effect against chemically- and thermally-induced nociceptive pain stimuli in mice (P < 0.05, 0.01). And the ginger oil (0.25-1.0 g/kg) also significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema, adjuvant arthritis, and inflammatory mediators-induced vascular permeability in rats (P < 0.05, 0.001). Conclusion These findings confirm that the ginger oil can be used to treat pain and chronic inflammation such as rheumatic arthritis.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (2342) [HTML] (0) [PDF 273.72 K] (8831)
    Abstract:
    Cistanches Herba, a famous traditional Chinese materia medica, has a laudatory title “desert ginseng”. According to Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2000, Cistanches Herba is the dry fleshy stem with scale-like leaves of Cistanche deserticola. In order to expand the drug source, Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2005 increased the plants in Cistanche Hoffmg. et Link (Orobanchaceae), C. tubulosa, and dry scaly leaf succulent stems were as genuine Cistanches Herba and still in use. In order to have more comprehensive understanding on Cistanches Herba, this paper focuses the reviews on the biological characteristics, chemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of Cistanches Herba, and its development prospects are looked forward. It provides the relative theoretical basis for the subsequent research work of Cistanches Herba and can be conducive to the development and utilization of Cistanches Herba.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (2114) [HTML] (0) [PDF 324.52 K] (8629)
    Abstract:
    Objective To predict the total flavonoids concentration of Aurantii Fructus fried with bran in its extraction process. Methods Ultraviolet spectrophotometry was used to determine the concentration of total flavonoids in different extraction time (t ) and solvent load (M ). Then the predicted procedure was carried out using the following data: 1) based on Ficks second law, the parameters of the kinetic model could be deduced and the equation was established; 2) Locally weighted regression (LWR) code was developed in the WEKA software environment to predict the concentration. And then we used both methods to predict the concentration of total flavonoids in new experiments. Results After comparing the predicted results with the experimental data, the LWR model had better accuracy and performance in the prediction. Conclusion LWR is applied to analyze the extraction process of Chinese herb for the first time, and it is totally fit for the extraction. LWR-based system is a more simple and accurate way to predict than the established equation. It is a good choice especially for a process which exists no clearly rules, and can be used in the real-time control during the process.
    2010,2(2):81-105, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.02.001
    [Abstract] (3422) [HTML] (0) [PDF 822.05 K] (8430)
    Abstract:
    Objective The 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (ACPC) is a natural micromolecule non-protein amino acid that exists only in plants. Despite the determination of its regulating effects on plants, several bioactivities and effects on animals or humans are still unclear. This review focuses the pharmaceutical effects,above all, the neuroprotective effects of ACPC on the cerebro- and cardiovascular system. Methods Two hundred and seventy nine studies were selected and identified from a total of 2457 references in Medline and Chemical Abstracts from 1957 to 2008. Only 38 articles on neuroprotective effects of ACPC from seven different countries qualified to be included in the analysis. Results ACPC has altogether following six general neuroprotective effects on the brain and nervous system: anti-neurotoxicity induced by NMDA, dynorphin-A, glutamate, and morphine; protection from cerebral neurological injury induced by ischemia; antidepressant and anxiolytic effects; anti-convulsion and -seizures and control of epilepsy; facilitation of spatial learning and memory; and the effect of reducing alcohol consumption. Conclusion ACPC has shown a variety of effects on plants and animals. The bioactivities and pharmaceutical effects on animals are of great significance to medical research and public health. Further clinical trials or epidemiological studies are needed to determine its effect in humans. Food intervention with ACPC-rich vegetables and fruits may be a suitable therapy for cerebro- and cardiovascular system diseases. Administration of trace exogenous ACPC could produce vegetables and fruits of rich endogenous ACPC.
    2011,3(2):117-126, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.02.006
    [Abstract] (4387) [HTML] (0) [PDF 211.05 K] (8374)
    Abstract:
    The reports on chemical constituents of Hyoscyamus niger were summarized. The compounds include alkaloids, saponins, lignans, coumarinolignans, flavonoids, and some other nonalkaloidal compounds. TLC, HPLC, and GC were used for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of some chemical constituents in H. niger. Modern pharmacological experiments showed that H. niger had the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anticonvulsant, spasmolytic, antidiarrhoeal, antisecretory, bronchodilatory, urinary bladder relaxant, hypotensive, cardiosuppressant, vasodilator, antitumor, and feeding deterrent properties. In addition, the toxicities of this medicinal plant were also described.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (2365) [HTML] (0) [PDF 488.37 K] (8122)
    Abstract:
    Bentysrepinine (Y101), a derivative of repensine, is a novel di-peptide structure isolated from Dichondra repens. In vitro and in vivo tests exhibited that bentysrepinine markedly inhibited DNA-HBV and cccDNA activities. The binding mode of Y101 and repensine with DNA polymerase was driven by hydrophobic interactions. This might provide novel recognition of inhibitory effect of Y101 against HBV, though its inhibition mechanism needs to be validated by bio-assay at cellular level and of polymerase activity. Preliminary docking study suggested that Y101 might be able to inhibit HIV inverse transcriptase, also have the potential to interact with DNA polymerase and HCV NS5B polymerase.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (1984) [HTML] (0) [PDF 299.63 K] (7962)
    Abstract:
    The inception of network pharmacology comes from the advance in “multi-target, multi-drug” paradigm and opens up a new field for pharmaceutical science. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is well-known for its use of medicinal herb combinations to treat the functional disorders induced by diseases through a holistic view, which naturally followed the principal of network pharmacology. In this review, the methodologies of network pharmacology in TCM studies were summarized. Specifically, the methodologies for network construction and network analysis were detailed by following several TCM study cases followed. The perspectives for TCM network pharmacology were also provided.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (1959) [HTML] (0) [PDF 360.32 K] (7685)
    Abstract:
    Objective A reversed-phase HPLC method was established for the simultaneous determination of five hydrophilic and lipophilic components in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Methods Hydrophilic components including danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, and salvianolic acid B, and lipophilic components such as cryptotanshinone and tanshinone IIA, were successfully separated on a Waters Symmetry C18 reverse- phase column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm), with acetonitrile-0.5% phosphoric acid (gradient elution) as mobile phase, the detection wavelength was set at 281 nm with flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, and the column temperature was maintained at 30 °C. Results The recovery of the method was in the range of 95.1%–102.5% and the precision was less than 3% for all five analytes. All the compounds showed good linearity (R2 > 0.9990) in a relatively wide concentration range. Therefore, this HPLC method demonstrated good reproducibility, stability, and accuracy in validation studies. Conclusion Simultaneous quanti?cation of the multiple components by HPLC would be a better strategy for the quality evaluation on the roots of S. miltiorrhiza.
    2010,2(3):180-188, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.03.004
    [Abstract] (2341) [HTML] (0) [PDF 265.22 K] (7443)
    Abstract:
    The publications on the journal of Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs in Vol.40, 2009 are briefly reviewed in the categories of chemical constituents, preparations and technologies, analysis and quality control, pharmacological and clinical studies, reviews, and finally healthy principles. Some comments, especially for hot topics have been personally provided.

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