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  • 1  Deep in shadows: Epigenetic and epigenomic regulations of medicinal plants
    Da-Cheng Hao Pei-Gen Xiao
    2018, 10(3):239-248.
    [Abstract](57766) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](17)
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    Around 60% of the extant plants have medicinal and health-promoting values. genuine medicinal material (geoherb) is produced in particular geographic regions, that is defined ecological environment and cultivation pipeline. The clinical efficacy of a geoherb is superior to that of the same medicinal plant growing in other regions. The special medicinal features of a plant are determined by its genome, while the proper ecological conditions have major effects on the formation of a geoherb, which is at least partially mediated by the epigenetics. By epigenetics/epigenomics, researchers uncover the complexities of the influence of the environment on the expression of genes that control medicinal plant growth, development, stress responses, and medicinal phytometabolite yield, and put the other "omics layers" in a meaningful biological context. The unique phenotypes of geoherb are closely related to the growth, development, and stress responses of medicinal plants. In addition to the commonly known genetic control, epigenetic machineries, active at the population level, play an essential role in the formation of geoherbs. This contribution gives a comprehensive overview of the epigenetic regulation of medicinal plants and the associated microbes, and the role of DNA methylation, small non-coding RNA, transposable elements and histone modifications in the gene expression regulation of geoherbs and relevant microbiota. The epigenetic and epigenomic mechanisms should be highlighted in the study of specific phenotype and indigenousness of geoherbalism. Revealing the correlation between epigenetics and geoherbs could shed light on the quality assessment, authentication, molecular breeding, and sustainable utilization of medicinal plants and the associated microbes.
    2  Understanding "medicine and food homology", developing utilization in medicine functions
    Liu Chang-xiao
    2018, 10(4):337-338.
    [Abstract](50288) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](8)
    Abstract:
    Chinese medicine is a very big concept of medicine. In Shen-nong era, medicine and food do not divide. "Medicine and food homology", which is called “Chinese medicine and dietary application”, refers to that many foods are drugs, and there is no absolute demarcation line between them. At that time, seventy poisons were encountered in a day for experimental accusations, herbal medicines are divided into upper, middle and lower categories, the safe and non-toxic Chinese medicines are the upper product, which can be consumed, but is just a difference in dosage. Ancient medical scientists applied the theory of "four natures" and "five tastes" of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) into food, believing that each food also has "four natures" and "five tastes". "Medicine and food homology" means that Chinese medicine and food are of the same origin. The theory of "medicine and food homology" based on practice has existed in Chinese traditional medicine since ancient times. In ancient primitive society, people discovered the sexual taste and efficacy of various foods and medicines in the process of searching for food, realizing that many foods can be used medicinally and many medicinal materials can be used as dietary supplement. The theory holds that many foods are both food and medicine, and that they are just as effective in preventing disease as drugs. Therefore, this theory of "medicine and food homology" is also the basis of food therapy. Strictly speaking, in the TCM, drugs and food are indiscriminate. Food has fewer side effects, but drugs have more. This is another meaning of medicine and food homology. Hence, the source of Chinese medicine and food is the same. Some things can only be used to treat diseases, known as drugs, some things can only be used for diet, known as foods. The line between medicine and food is not very clear because they all have healing powers. Such as orange, hawthorn, black plum, walnuts, almonds, fennel, cinnamon, pumpkin seeds and so on, they are not only Chinese medicine with a good curative effect, but also nutritious delicious food that people often eat. The common point of TCM and food is to have a healthy function to prevent and control diseases. The difference between them is that the TCM has strong therapeutic effect, which is often called "strong drug". When the medicine is used correctly, the effect is prominent. However, the therapeutic effect of food is not as prominent and rapid as that of TCM. The important issue cannot be ignored is that medicaments will not be often taken commonly though their action is strong, and food we eat every day though food action is weak. Our daily diet, in addition to the supply of essential nutrients, will also be more or less due to the performance of the food on the balance and physiological function of the adverse or favorable impact, accumulation, from quantitative change to qualitative change, the impact becomes very obvious. In this sense, they are no less effective than TCM. Accordingly, adjusting food correctly and reasonably, with long-term adherence, can have the effect that medicaments cannot achieve. In this issue of CHM journal, we organized four articles on Lycium barbarum, Gardenia jasminoides, Taraxacum mongolicum, and Moringa oleifera (Gouqizi, Zhizi, Pugongying, and Lamu in Chinese, respectively) with medicine and food functions, focusing on the analysis and discussion of the current research status and put forward the views or opinions of authors on the development of these four Chinese medicines. The present paper on Lycium barbarum focuses on the legal plant resource and reviews the main research in medicinal field including botanical identification, ethnopharmacological functions, phytochemistry, pharmacological effects, clinic usages, and safety issues. Fruits of Gardenia jasminoides haves been used as dietary supplement and traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Recent studies of Gardenia jasminoides reveal that the extracts or the active components play an essential role in oxidative stress, inflammation, hepatoprotection, neuroprotection, anti-diabetes, antitumor and so on. Here, we reviewed Gardenia jasminoides in the botanical identity, chemical ingredients, pharmacology, and pharmacokinetics, safety and toxicity evaluation, clinical application, etc. Taraxacum mongolicum has been used in TCM and dietary application, and T. officinale has been applied in medicinal and food use in other regions and cultures around the globe. Authors summarized the phytochemical constituents of dandelion (particularly from T. mongolicum and T. officinale). Recent published health benefits of dandelion, such as anti-oxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity, blood sugar and lipids regulation and hepatoprotective activity, as well as its safety data were highlighted. The limited human clinical study and pharmacokinetics information lead to the thought that well-designed human clinical study should be the focus and opportunity for the future research area to truly understand efficacy function and health benefit of dandelion for its application in medicine and health food area. Moringa oleifera is one of the most widespread species belonging to family Moringaceae. Almost each part of this tree has enormous properties in nutrition, medicine or other industrial purposes. This review mainly introduces nutritional ingredients, bioactive compounds, applications, and potentials of this tree including leaves, seeds, pods, flowers, root barks, and gum in order to bring convenience to industries and researchers all over the world focusing on each part of this amazing plant. Moreover, the review also analyzes the current application situation of M. oleifera in China. Authors concluded that most current researches focus on the leaves and seeds of this plant, and the most concerned property of M. oleifera is the antioxidant ability. Medicine and food dual-use plants of China have a long history of application, and the medicine-food dual-use plants have both certain physiological effects and long-term edible safety. For people with potential risk of onset, healthy products developed by edible and edible dual-use plants can prevent disease occurrence and maintain health, and are more scientific and rational than drug treatment after disease occurrence. The development and utilization has broad market prospects. According to the research and development status of Chinese plant resources, the development and utilization of medicine-food dual-use plants is facing challenges. Evaluation and selection of efficacy in research and development, study of functional substance basis and mechanism of action, functional product positioning and composition design, and plant resource germplasm evaluation, planting process management, post-harvest storage, etc. involved in functional food quality control process. A series of key technical issues, such as intensive processing and comprehensive utilization of resources, require efforts to carry out research in order to provide certain theoretical guidance and practice for the development and utilization of dual-use plant resources in China.
    3  Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China (2010 Edition): A Milestone in Development of China’s Healthcare
    QIAN Zhong-zhi DAN Yang LIU Yan-ze PENG Yong
    2010, 2(2):157-159. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.年份.期.第几篇文章
    [Abstract](3266) [HTML](0) [PDF 217.57 K](21325)
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    4  Isolation and Purification of Isoaloeresin D and Aloin from Aloe vera by High-speed Counter-current Chromatography
    WAN Jin-zhi CHEN Xin-xia QIU Chun-mei LIN Xiang-cheng
    2010, 2(2):148-152. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.02.010
    [Abstract](3164) [HTML](0) [PDF 215.71 K](7808)
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    Objective To develop an efficient method to isolate and purify the main components isoaloeresin D and aloin from Aloe vera for its industrial production. Methods High-speed counter-current chromatography was used to isolate isoaloeresin D and aloin in a one-step separation from dried crude extract of A. vera. The biphasic solvent system composed of hexane-ethyl acetate-acetone-water (0.2︰5︰1.5︰5) was used at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, while the lipophilic phase was selected as the mobile phase and the apparatus was rotated at 840 r/min. The effluent was detected at 254 nm. Results Isoaloeresin D (53.1 mg) and aloin (106.9 mg) were separated from the crude extract (384.7 mg) with the purities of 98.6% and 99.5%, respectively. Conclusion HSCCC is a powerful technique for isolation and separation of chemical composition from aloe.
    5  Challenges in Research and Development of Traditional Chinese Medicines
    LIU Chang-xiao XIAO Pei-gen PENG Yong SONG Nai-ning
    2009, 1(1):1-28. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.年份.期.第几篇文章
    [Abstract](3045) [HTML](0) [PDF 469.82 K](5885)
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    This review is briefly to recall the history of research and development (R&D) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and to discuss the challenges of Chinese traditional and herbal medicines (CTHM) facing the modern science and technology. The R&D of CTHM is thought to be an important pathway for new drug discovery. Since1949, about 140 approved new drugs have been developed, among which about 80 originated directly or indirectly from medicinal plants. CTHM has gained interest from the international medical, biomedical, and pharmaceutical institutions as a valuable source of potential medicines. For the modernization of CMM and innovative research of CTHM, there are following challenges to be faced: (1) to evaluate the efficacy, pharmacological properties, action mechanism, and active chemical constituents; (2) to develop new methodologies for the quality and safety of CTHM; (3) to apply new “-omics” techniques to accelerate drug discoveries developed from CTHM; and (4) to apply international practices including good agricultural practice, good manufacturing practice, good laboratory practice, and good clinical practice in the R&D of CTHM.
    6  Antibacterial Mechanisms of Berberine and Reasons for Little Resistance of Bacteria
    JIN Jian-ling HUA Guo-qiang MENG Zhen GAO Pei-ji
    2011, 3(1):27-35. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.01.007
    [Abstract](2958) [HTML](0) [PDF 234.17 K](5923)
    Abstract:
    Objective To study the antibacterial mechanisms of berberine and try to understand the reasons why bacteria cells difficultly resisted to it. Methods Detecting the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of bacterial cultures incubated under sub-MIC concentration of berberine, Huanglian, and Neomycin for more than 200 generations, in order to analyze the bacteria resistance. Detecting the binding kinetics of berberine to DNA, RNA, and proteins. Observing the changes in bacterial cell surface structure with scanning electron microscopy. Detecting the Ca2+ and K+ released from berberine-treated bacterial cells with atomic absorption spectrum. Detection the absorption of methyl-3H-thymine (3H-dT), 3H-uridine (3H-U), and 3H-tyrosine (3H-Tyr) into berberine-treated bacterial cells. Results MICs of bacterial cultures, growing more than 200 generations in MH medium with 1/2 MIC of berberine (BA200) or Huanglian (HA200), did not increase compared to the control, while remarkably increased in MH medium with 1/2 MIC of Neomycin (NA200). In addition, from the culture NA200 it was easy to isolate resistant mutant strains which could grow in MH medium with more than four times MIC Neomycin, but from the culture BA200 and HA200 it was difficult to isolate berberine or Huanglian mutant strains could grow in MH medium with more than four times MIC berberine or Huanglian. The binding kinetics of berberine to DNA, RNA, and proteins illustrated that berberine could easily and tightly bind to DNA and RNA, and hardly dis-bind from DNA- and RNA-berberine complexes. Berberine could easily bind to protein too, but also easily dis-bind from berberine-protein complex. The bacterial cells treated with berberine sharply decreased the absorption of 3H-dT, 3H-U, and 3H-Tyr, as the radioactive precursors of DNA, RNA, and protein biosynthesis. Berberine could damage bacterial cell surface structure, especially for Gram-negative bacteria. Ca2+ and K+ released from berberine-treated cells increased significantly compared to the control. Conclusion All of above results indicate that bacterial cells could not easily become resistant mutants to berberine. The mechanisms for the bactericidal effect of berberine include: inhibiting DNA duplication, RNA transcription, and protein biosynthesis; influencing or inhibiting enzyme activities; destructing the bacterial cell surface structure and resulting in Ca2+ and K+ released from cells. All of the berberine bactericidal mechanisms are the most essential physiological functions for a live cell, if influenced any one such function, the mutation would be lethal mutation, so that it is difficult to get berberine resistant cells. The results in this paper also prefigure that berberine and its related Chinese medicines would provide a feasible way to control antibiotic resistance problem.
    7  New Collection of Crude Drugs in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 I. Callicarpa Linn. and Related Items
    DAN Yang QIAN Zhong-zhi LIU Yan-ze ZHOU Guo-ping PENG Yong XIAO Pei-gen
    2010, 2(4):272-288. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.04.005
    [Abstract](2929) [HTML](0) [PDF 307.65 K](9859)
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    Callicarpa Linn. (beautyberry) is one of the major genera in Verbenaceous, about 20 of which are medicinal plants. Beautyberry, called Zizhu in China, is a generic name of those species and largely used as hemostatic medicine. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 has admitted three new crude drugs from the genus of Callicarpa Linn. including Callicarpae Macrophyllae Folium, Callicarpae Caulis et Folium, and Callicarpae Formosanae Folium for the first time since the 1977 version of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. In order to better understand these new crude drugs, we systematically described their bibliography, admission reasons, botanical identification, chemistry, and pharmacology. Several other species, out of national regulations but intensively studied and widely used, are also covered in this review.
    8  Authentication of Medicinal Plants by DNA Based Markers and Genomics
    HAO Da-cheng CHEN Shi-lin XIAO Pei-gen PENG Yong
    2010, 2(4):250-261. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.04.003
    [Abstract](2806) [HTML](0) [PDF 401.07 K](7532)
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    For the protection of consumers and developments of relevant industry, authentication of medicinal plants is a critical issue. This review covers various aspects of authentication methods and techniques based on molecular biology and genomics with special emphasis on molecular biology techniques including genome-based authentication, microchip-based authentication, DNA barcoding, and their applications.
    9  Bioactivities and Pharmaceutical Effects of 1-Aminocyclopro- panecarboxylic Acid
    ZHU Qin-wei KRAEMER Alexander ZHU Xu-xiang
    2010, 2(2):81-105. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.02.001
    [Abstract](2763) [HTML](0) [PDF 822.05 K](6829)
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    Objective The 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (ACPC) is a natural micromolecule non-protein amino acid that exists only in plants. Despite the determination of its regulating effects on plants, several bioactivities and effects on animals or humans are still unclear. This review focuses the pharmaceutical effects,above all, the neuroprotective effects of ACPC on the cerebro- and cardiovascular system. Methods Two hundred and seventy nine studies were selected and identified from a total of 2457 references in Medline and Chemical Abstracts from 1957 to 2008. Only 38 articles on neuroprotective effects of ACPC from seven different countries qualified to be included in the analysis. Results ACPC has altogether following six general neuroprotective effects on the brain and nervous system: anti-neurotoxicity induced by NMDA, dynorphin-A, glutamate, and morphine; protection from cerebral neurological injury induced by ischemia; antidepressant and anxiolytic effects; anti-convulsion and -seizures and control of epilepsy; facilitation of spatial learning and memory; and the effect of reducing alcohol consumption. Conclusion ACPC has shown a variety of effects on plants and animals. The bioactivities and pharmaceutical effects on animals are of great significance to medical research and public health. Further clinical trials or epidemiological studies are needed to determine its effect in humans. Food intervention with ACPC-rich vegetables and fruits may be a suitable therapy for cerebro- and cardiovascular system diseases. Administration of trace exogenous ACPC could produce vegetables and fruits of rich endogenous ACPC.
    10  Chemical and Pharmacological Researches on Hyoscyamus niger
    LI Jun SHI Ji YU Xin-wen SUN Jing-kuan MEN Qi-ming KANG Ting-guo
    2011, 3(2):117-126. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.02.006
    [Abstract](2744) [HTML](0) [PDF 211.05 K](6493)
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    The reports on chemical constituents of Hyoscyamus niger were summarized. The compounds include alkaloids, saponins, lignans, coumarinolignans, flavonoids, and some other nonalkaloidal compounds. TLC, HPLC, and GC were used for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of some chemical constituents in H. niger. Modern pharmacological experiments showed that H. niger had the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anticonvulsant, spasmolytic, antidiarrhoeal, antisecretory, bronchodilatory, urinary bladder relaxant, hypotensive, cardiosuppressant, vasodilator, antitumor, and feeding deterrent properties. In addition, the toxicities of this medicinal plant were also described.
    11  Application of Bioinformatics and Systems Biology in Medicinal Plant Studies
    DENG You-ping AI Jun-mei XIAO Pei-gen
    2010, 2(3):170-179. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.03.003
    [Abstract](2584) [HTML](0) [PDF 241.96 K](5052)
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    One important purpose to investigate medicinal plants is to understand genes and enzymes that govern the biological metabolic process to produce bioactive compounds. Genome wide high throughput technologies such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics can help reach that goal. Such technologies can produce a vast amount of data which desperately need bioinformatics and systems biology to process, manage, distribute and understand these data. By dealing with the “omics” data, bioinformatics and systems biology can also help improve the quality of traditional medicinal materials, develop new approaches for the classification and authentication of medicinal plants, identify new active compounds, and cultivate medicinal plant species that tolerate harsh environmental conditions. In this review, the application of bioinformatics and systems biology in medicinal plants is briefly introduced.
    12  Strategies for Revitalization of Traditional Medicine
    MUKHERJEE Pulok K PITCHAIRAJAN Venkatesh MURUGAN Venkatesh SIVASANKARAN Ponnusankar KHAN Yaseen
    2010, 2(1):1-15. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.01.001
    [Abstract](2445) [HTML](0) [PDF 398.82 K](4126)
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    Traditional medicine (TM) plays an inevitable role in drug discovery and development. Most of the therapeutically useful molecules used in the present day are inspired from TM. Herbal drugs are the oldest forms of medicines used for the treatment of various ailments and the TM of every country has a long history of their usage. To develop more data on their quality, safety, and efficacy, so also to improve the consumer’s need of modern days several thrust areas of research are to be focused on the development of TM. Based on the above concept, a paradigm shift is required for the revitalization of TM. These facts along with the modern scientific approaches, molecular tools, and strategies make it necessary for TM to be revitalized. Confluencing several strategies with the technological and scientific developments including pharmacogenomics, nutrigenomics, system biology, and related approaches, the scientific potential of TM can be explored further with international coordination and collaborations.
    13  A Specific and Sensitive LC-MS/MS Method for Simultaneous Determination of Four Major Active Catechins of Tea Polyphenols in Rat Plasma and Its Application to Pharmacokinetic Study
    WANG Chang-yuan LI Qiu-sha HAN Guo-zhu ZOU Ling-li LV Li ZHOU Qin LI Nan
    2010, 2(4):289-296. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.04.006
    [Abstract](2365) [HTML](0) [PDF 528.78 K](4875)
    Abstract:
    Objective To develop a liquid chromatography technique coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for simultaneous determination of four active catechins EGCG, ECG, EGC, and EC of tea polyphenols (TP) in rat plasma in order to further study its multi-component pharmacokinetics. Methods Following a single step liquid-liquid extraction of plasma samples with ethyl acetate, the four catechins were separated on a Hypersil ODS C18 column using an isocratic mobile phase composed of methanol-water (30︰70). The detection using a mass spectrometer was performed under negative ESI in the MRM mode. The analytes were identified by reference to both MRM and tR values and quantified using peak area internal standard method. Results The method was shown to be specific without interference from matrix, metabolites, and impurities present in TP raw material and to be sensitive with LOD and LOQ of 1.5 and 10 ng/mL (EGCG) as well as 0.75 and 5 ng/mL (ECG, EGC, and EC). A good linearity was obtained over a wide range of 10-10 000 ng/mL for EGCG and 5-5000 ng/mL for other three catechins (r > 0.996). The method was validated to be reproducible and reliable, as evidenced by intra-batch and inter-batch precision of less than 10% and 11%, accuracy of 97.13%-106.05% and 99.22%-103.14%, respectively. The recovery of extraction ranged from 72.74% to 89.13%, matrix effect from 88.76% to 105.97% for four catechins. The method was successfully used to study the pharmacokinetics of TP iv administered to rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Conclusion This method is shown to completely meet requirements for the multi-component pharmacokinetic study of TP in rats.
    14  Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Ginger Oil
    JIA Yong-liang ZHAO Jun-ming ZHANG Lin-hui SUN Bao-shan BAO Meng-jing LI Fen-fen SHEN Jian SHEN Hui-jun ZHAO Yu-qing XIE Qiang-min
    2011, 3(2):150-155. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.02.011
    [Abstract](2328) [HTML](0) [PDF 157.86 K](6862)
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    Objective Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is widely used as a spice in cooking and as a medicinal herb in traditional herbal medicine. The present study was to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ginger oil in experimental animal models. Methods The analgesic effect of the oils was evaluated by the “acetic acid” and “hot-plate” test models of pain in mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of the oil was investigated in rats, using rat paw edema induced by carrageenan, adjuvant arthritis, and vascular permeability induced by bradykinin, arachidonic acid, and histamine. Indomethacin (1 mg/kg), Aspirin (0.5 g/kg) and Dexamethasone (2.5 mg/kg) were used respectively as reference drugs for comparison. Results The ginger oil (0.25-1.0 g/kg) produced significant analgesic effect against chemically- and thermally-induced nociceptive pain stimuli in mice (P < 0.05, 0.01). And the ginger oil (0.25-1.0 g/kg) also significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema, adjuvant arthritis, and inflammatory mediators-induced vascular permeability in rats (P < 0.05, 0.001). Conclusion These findings confirm that the ginger oil can be used to treat pain and chronic inflammation such as rheumatic arthritis.
    15  HPLC Fingerprint and LC-TOF-MS Analysis on Extract from Roots of Gentiana macrophylla
    SU Qi SHANG Ping-ping ZHANG Yong-min JIA Na HE Jiao ZHAO Wen-na SUN Wen-ji
    2012, 4(3):245-251. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2012.03.012
    [Abstract](2234) [HTML](0) [PDF 221.06 K](9844)
    Abstract:
    Objective Establishing a ?ngerprint method to identify the characteristic chemicals in the roots of Gentiana macrophylla and evaluate their quality. Methods RP-HPLC was developed for ?ngerprint analysis and determination of four ingredients in G. macrophylla roots from different sources. LC-ESI-TOF-MS was employed to identify the chromatographic peaks of the ?ngerprint. Results Five common peaks were identified by comparing their retention time with reference secoiridoid glucosides. Eight major peaks in chromatographic fingerprint were analyzed by on-line LC-ESI-TOF-MS. Four secoiridoid glucosides were identified based on their MS data. Conclusion The method is specific and could be served for the quality identi?cation and comprehensive evaluation of G. macrophylla.
    16  Advances in Studies on Chemistry, Pharmacological Effect, and Pharmacokinetics of Eurycoma longifolia
    HOU Wen-bin XIAO Xue-feng GUO Wei ZHANG Tie-jun
    2011, 3(3):186-195. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.03.004
    [Abstract](2185) [HTML](0) [PDF 263.73 K](5880)
    Abstract:
    Eurycoma longifolia, also known as Tongkat Ali in Malaysia, as one of traditional herbal medicines, is used for centuries in South-East Asia. With the discovery of anticancer and anti-HIV properties, this herbal medicine has attracted great attention recently. In this review, the following information on E. longifolia, including chemistry, bioactivities, pharmacokinetics, clinical studies, and side effects and safety, was introduced. Our results, to a certain extent, will provide scientific base for commercial utilization and clearance of the Tongkat Ali products with regard to consumers’ safety.
    17  Factors Affecting Embryogenic Callus Production and Plant Regeneration in Anther Culture of Bupleurum chinense
    YANG Cheng-min ZHAO Yu-kai WEI Jian-he ZHAO Li-zi SUI Chun ZHANG Zheng CUI Lu-ying
    2011, 3(3):214-220. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.03.008
    [Abstract](2120) [HTML](0) [PDF 257.91 K](4525)
    Abstract:
    Objective To evaluate the influences of the genotypes, anther developmental stages, and cultural conditions on the efficiency of embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration in the anthers culture of Bupleurum chinense. Methods The different effects such as four genotypes, plant growth regulators, and temperature condition were compared in the experiments. The histological study was performed with the process of the anther culture. Results The highest inducing rate of embryogenic calli were achieved for the genotypes Zhongcaiyihao (ZCYH), Z4, and Z5 at the early- to middle-uninucleate stages, except for genotype ZPM1 at the tetrad stage. Cold pretreatment increased the production of the embryogenic callus, in which 4-day cold pretreatment improved the production of embryogenic callus from 0% to 2.2% and 5.0% for genotypes ZPM1 and ZCYH, respectively. No embryogenic callus was induced in the medium containing less than 0.75 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The highest regeneration rate (34.6%) was obtained in 1/2 MS salts regeneration medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L 6-benzylmaminopurine (BA). The low concentration of BA was able to promote the embryogenic callus formation and subsequent plantlet regeneration via somatic embryogenesis. Chromosome counting of regenerated plantlets showed mostly diploid plant (2n = 12) with only one haploid plant (n = 6). Because of the low rate of microspore embryo formation, we only tracked the process of embryogenesis from the connective tissue, instead of microspore by histological observations. Conclusion This study establishes an efficient system for embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration system. This is the first report on the haploid plantlet through the anther culture of B. chinense.
    18  Network Pharmacology Bridges Traditional Application and Modern Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine
    Chang-xiao Liu Rui Liu Hui-rong Fan Xue-feng Xiao Xiao-peng Chen Hai-yu Xu Yan-ping Lin
    2015, 7.
    [Abstract](2060) [HTML](0) [PDF 503.58 K](9088)
    Abstract:
    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has developed over thousands of years and has accumulated abundant clinical experience, forming a comprehensive and unique medical system. Emerging evidence has begun to illustrate TCM as an area of important medical rediscoveries. This paper briefly introduced the concept, significance, and technology of network pharmacology based on network biology and systems biology. It focused on the theoretical system and potential prospect of TCM network applied in TCM research and development including predicting new drug targets, action mechanism, new drug discovery; evaluating pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, safety, toxicology, quality control, and bioinformatics of drugs. We also discussed the opportunities and challenges in the development and application of network pharmacology in the modernization of TCM research.
    19  Relationship between DNA Barcoding and Chemical Classification of Salvia Medicinal Herbs
    HAN Jian-ping LIU Chang LI Min-hui SHI Lin-chun SONG Jing-yuan YAO Hui PANG Xiao-hui CHEN Shi-lin
    2010, 2(1):16-29. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.年份.期.第几篇文章
    [Abstract](2040) [HTML](0) [PDF 855.39 K](4060)
    Abstract:
    Objective To make the identification of medicinal herbs in Salvia L. quickly and accurately. Methods In this work, DNA barcoding and chemical fingerprint were compared for the identification of herbs in Salvia L. First, the nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region two amplified from 48 medicinal plants in Salvia L., and three other groups of medicinal plants in Lamiaceae were sequenced. A molecular phylogeny was constructed using the minimum evolution and maximum parsimony methods according to their sequence diversity. Second, the water-solution bioactive components and lipid soluble components were tested by HPLC. Then a chemical phylogeny was built using HPLC fingerprint data. Comparing the molecular and chemical phylogenetic trees revealed many similarities. Results DNA barcoding was sequencing based and could therefore provide more accurate results within a shorter time especially in large-scale studies. Conclusion The results show that ITS2 region is a novel DNA barcode for the authentication of the species in Salvia L. This is the first work to show the relationship between DNA barcoding and chemical components.
    20  Review of Rhubarbs: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    ZHENG Qing-xia WU Hai-feng GUO Jian NAN Hai-jiang CHEN Shi-lin YANG Jun-shan XU Xu-dong
    2013, 5(1):9-32. DOI: 10.7501/j.issn.1674-6384.2013.01.003
    [Abstract](1997) [HTML](0) [PDF 583.26 K](8683)
    Abstract:
    Rhubarb is a perennial herb belonging to the genus Rheum L. (Polygonaceae). Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (rhubarb roots and rhizomes) is one of the most popular Chinese materia medica and has been widely used for strong laxative function. About 200 compounds with six different types of skeletons (anthraquinone, anthrone, stilbene, flavonoids, acylglucoside, and pyrone) have so far been isolated from eighteen species of the genus Rheum L. These constituents showed extensive pharmacological activities including cathartic, diuretic, anticancer, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects, as well as toxicological effects. Chemical fingerprint, LC-MS, and other analytical techniques have been used for the quality control of rhubarb. This comprehensive review summarizes the researches into the isolation, pharmacological activities, and phytochemical analysis reported since investigations began in the late 1940s. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies and clinical application of rhubarb are also discussed in present paper.

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