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  • 1  Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China (2010 Edition): A Milestone in Development of China’s Healthcare
    QIAN Zhong-zhi DAN Yang LIU Yan-ze PENG Yong
    2010, 2(2):157-159. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.年份.期.第几篇文章
    [Abstract](3266) [HTML](0) [PDF 217.57 K](21325)
    Abstract:
    2  Analysis on Volatile Constituents in Leaves and Fruits of Ficus carica by GC-MS
    LI Jun TIAN Yu-zeng SUN Bao-ya YANG Dan CHEN Ji-ping MEN Qi-ming
    2012, 4(1):63-69. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2012.01.010
    [Abstract](1633) [HTML](0) [PDF 160.29 K](10317)
    Abstract:
    Objective To identify and analyze the volatile constituents in the leaves and fruits of Ficus carica. Methods Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used. Results The major components detected in volatile oil of the leaves were psoralen (10.12%), β-damascenone (10.17%), benzyl alcohol (4.56%), behenic acid (4.79%), and bergapten (1.99%), etc. The major components detected in volatile oil of the fruits were furfural (10.55%), 5-methyl-2-furaldehyde (10.1%), and benzeneacetaldehyde (6.59%), etc. Conclusion A total of 121 volatile constituents are identified in the leaves and 108 in the fruits of F. carica, among which 103 constituents are identified for the first time in the leaves and 100 in the fruits. Eighteen volatile constituents are identified in both leaves and fruits.
    3  New Collection of Crude Drugs in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 I. Callicarpa Linn. and Related Items
    DAN Yang QIAN Zhong-zhi LIU Yan-ze ZHOU Guo-ping PENG Yong XIAO Pei-gen
    2010, 2(4):272-288. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.04.005
    [Abstract](2929) [HTML](0) [PDF 307.65 K](9859)
    Abstract:
    Callicarpa Linn. (beautyberry) is one of the major genera in Verbenaceous, about 20 of which are medicinal plants. Beautyberry, called Zizhu in China, is a generic name of those species and largely used as hemostatic medicine. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 has admitted three new crude drugs from the genus of Callicarpa Linn. including Callicarpae Macrophyllae Folium, Callicarpae Caulis et Folium, and Callicarpae Formosanae Folium for the first time since the 1977 version of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. In order to better understand these new crude drugs, we systematically described their bibliography, admission reasons, botanical identification, chemistry, and pharmacology. Several other species, out of national regulations but intensively studied and widely used, are also covered in this review.
    4  HPLC Fingerprint and LC-TOF-MS Analysis on Extract from Roots of Gentiana macrophylla
    SU Qi SHANG Ping-ping ZHANG Yong-min JIA Na HE Jiao ZHAO Wen-na SUN Wen-ji
    2012, 4(3):245-251. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2012.03.012
    [Abstract](2234) [HTML](0) [PDF 221.06 K](9844)
    Abstract:
    Objective Establishing a ?ngerprint method to identify the characteristic chemicals in the roots of Gentiana macrophylla and evaluate their quality. Methods RP-HPLC was developed for ?ngerprint analysis and determination of four ingredients in G. macrophylla roots from different sources. LC-ESI-TOF-MS was employed to identify the chromatographic peaks of the ?ngerprint. Results Five common peaks were identified by comparing their retention time with reference secoiridoid glucosides. Eight major peaks in chromatographic fingerprint were analyzed by on-line LC-ESI-TOF-MS. Four secoiridoid glucosides were identified based on their MS data. Conclusion The method is specific and could be served for the quality identi?cation and comprehensive evaluation of G. macrophylla.
    5  Network Pharmacology Bridges Traditional Application and Modern Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine
    Chang-xiao Liu Rui Liu Hui-rong Fan Xue-feng Xiao Xiao-peng Chen Hai-yu Xu Yan-ping Lin
    2015, 7.
    [Abstract](2060) [HTML](0) [PDF 503.58 K](9088)
    Abstract:
    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has developed over thousands of years and has accumulated abundant clinical experience, forming a comprehensive and unique medical system. Emerging evidence has begun to illustrate TCM as an area of important medical rediscoveries. This paper briefly introduced the concept, significance, and technology of network pharmacology based on network biology and systems biology. It focused on the theoretical system and potential prospect of TCM network applied in TCM research and development including predicting new drug targets, action mechanism, new drug discovery; evaluating pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, safety, toxicology, quality control, and bioinformatics of drugs. We also discussed the opportunities and challenges in the development and application of network pharmacology in the modernization of TCM research.
    6  Review of Rhubarbs: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    ZHENG Qing-xia WU Hai-feng GUO Jian NAN Hai-jiang CHEN Shi-lin YANG Jun-shan XU Xu-dong
    2013, 5(1):9-32. DOI: 10.7501/j.issn.1674-6384.2013.01.003
    [Abstract](1997) [HTML](0) [PDF 583.26 K](8683)
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    Rhubarb is a perennial herb belonging to the genus Rheum L. (Polygonaceae). Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (rhubarb roots and rhizomes) is one of the most popular Chinese materia medica and has been widely used for strong laxative function. About 200 compounds with six different types of skeletons (anthraquinone, anthrone, stilbene, flavonoids, acylglucoside, and pyrone) have so far been isolated from eighteen species of the genus Rheum L. These constituents showed extensive pharmacological activities including cathartic, diuretic, anticancer, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects, as well as toxicological effects. Chemical fingerprint, LC-MS, and other analytical techniques have been used for the quality control of rhubarb. This comprehensive review summarizes the researches into the isolation, pharmacological activities, and phytochemical analysis reported since investigations began in the late 1940s. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies and clinical application of rhubarb are also discussed in present paper.
    7  Revision and Improvement of Criterion on Traditional Chinese Medicines in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015
    Yang Dan Zhong-zhi Qian Yong Peng Chang-qing Chen Yan-ze Liu Wen Tai Jing-wen Qi
    2016, 8(3):196-208. DOI: 10.1016/S1674-6384(16)60043-6
    [Abstract](546) [HTML](0) [PDF 311.21 K](8112)
    Abstract:
    Chinese Pharmacopoeia is updated every five years, of which traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is the most important part. The 2015 version completed by the 10th Pharmacopoeia Commission has come into operation since December 1, 2015. Here we introduced the revision and improvement of quality evaluation and control standards of TCMs in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015.
    8  Isolation and Purification of Isoaloeresin D and Aloin from Aloe vera by High-speed Counter-current Chromatography
    WAN Jin-zhi CHEN Xin-xia QIU Chun-mei LIN Xiang-cheng
    2010, 2(2):148-152. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.02.010
    [Abstract](3164) [HTML](0) [PDF 215.71 K](7808)
    Abstract:
    Objective To develop an efficient method to isolate and purify the main components isoaloeresin D and aloin from Aloe vera for its industrial production. Methods High-speed counter-current chromatography was used to isolate isoaloeresin D and aloin in a one-step separation from dried crude extract of A. vera. The biphasic solvent system composed of hexane-ethyl acetate-acetone-water (0.2︰5︰1.5︰5) was used at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, while the lipophilic phase was selected as the mobile phase and the apparatus was rotated at 840 r/min. The effluent was detected at 254 nm. Results Isoaloeresin D (53.1 mg) and aloin (106.9 mg) were separated from the crude extract (384.7 mg) with the purities of 98.6% and 99.5%, respectively. Conclusion HSCCC is a powerful technique for isolation and separation of chemical composition from aloe.
    9  Authentication of Medicinal Plants by DNA Based Markers and Genomics
    HAO Da-cheng CHEN Shi-lin XIAO Pei-gen PENG Yong
    2010, 2(4):250-261. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.04.003
    [Abstract](2806) [HTML](0) [PDF 401.07 K](7532)
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    For the protection of consumers and developments of relevant industry, authentication of medicinal plants is a critical issue. This review covers various aspects of authentication methods and techniques based on molecular biology and genomics with special emphasis on molecular biology techniques including genome-based authentication, microchip-based authentication, DNA barcoding, and their applications.
    10  Research Progress on Chemical Constituents of Cistanches Herba and their Pharmacological Effects
    Lin–lin Wang Hui Ding Yao Shi Qing-hai Lai He–shui Yu Li-juan Zhang Xin-bo Song
    2015, 7.
    [Abstract](1695) [HTML](0) [PDF 273.72 K](7220)
    Abstract:
    Cistanches Herba, a famous traditional Chinese materia medica, has a laudatory title “desert ginseng”. According to Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2000, Cistanches Herba is the dry fleshy stem with scale-like leaves of Cistanche deserticola. In order to expand the drug source, Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2005 increased the plants in Cistanche Hoffmg. et Link (Orobanchaceae), C. tubulosa, and dry scaly leaf succulent stems were as genuine Cistanches Herba and still in use. In order to have more comprehensive understanding on Cistanches Herba, this paper focuses the reviews on the biological characteristics, chemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of Cistanches Herba, and its development prospects are looked forward. It provides the relative theoretical basis for the subsequent research work of Cistanches Herba and can be conducive to the development and utilization of Cistanches Herba.
    11  Concentration Prediction of Total Flavonoids in Aurantii Fructus Extraction Process: Locally Weighted Regression versus Kinetic Model Equation Based on Ficks Law
    Yang Chen Jun-hui Shen Jian Ni Meng-jie Xu Hao-ran Dou Jing Fu Xiao-xu Dong
    2015, 7.
    [Abstract](1723) [HTML](0) [PDF 324.52 K](6947)
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    Objective To predict the total flavonoids concentration of Aurantii Fructus fried with bran in its extraction process. Methods Ultraviolet spectrophotometry was used to determine the concentration of total flavonoids in different extraction time (t ) and solvent load (M ). Then the predicted procedure was carried out using the following data: 1) based on Ficks second law, the parameters of the kinetic model could be deduced and the equation was established; 2) Locally weighted regression (LWR) code was developed in the WEKA software environment to predict the concentration. And then we used both methods to predict the concentration of total flavonoids in new experiments. Results After comparing the predicted results with the experimental data, the LWR model had better accuracy and performance in the prediction. Conclusion LWR is applied to analyze the extraction process of Chinese herb for the first time, and it is totally fit for the extraction. LWR-based system is a more simple and accurate way to predict than the established equation. It is a good choice especially for a process which exists no clearly rules, and can be used in the real-time control during the process.
    12  Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Ginger Oil
    JIA Yong-liang ZHAO Jun-ming ZHANG Lin-hui SUN Bao-shan BAO Meng-jing LI Fen-fen SHEN Jian SHEN Hui-jun ZHAO Yu-qing XIE Qiang-min
    2011, 3(2):150-155. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.02.011
    [Abstract](2328) [HTML](0) [PDF 157.86 K](6862)
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    Objective Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is widely used as a spice in cooking and as a medicinal herb in traditional herbal medicine. The present study was to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ginger oil in experimental animal models. Methods The analgesic effect of the oils was evaluated by the “acetic acid” and “hot-plate” test models of pain in mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of the oil was investigated in rats, using rat paw edema induced by carrageenan, adjuvant arthritis, and vascular permeability induced by bradykinin, arachidonic acid, and histamine. Indomethacin (1 mg/kg), Aspirin (0.5 g/kg) and Dexamethasone (2.5 mg/kg) were used respectively as reference drugs for comparison. Results The ginger oil (0.25-1.0 g/kg) produced significant analgesic effect against chemically- and thermally-induced nociceptive pain stimuli in mice (P < 0.05, 0.01). And the ginger oil (0.25-1.0 g/kg) also significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema, adjuvant arthritis, and inflammatory mediators-induced vascular permeability in rats (P < 0.05, 0.001). Conclusion These findings confirm that the ginger oil can be used to treat pain and chronic inflammation such as rheumatic arthritis.
    13  Bioactivities and Pharmaceutical Effects of 1-Aminocyclopro- panecarboxylic Acid
    ZHU Qin-wei KRAEMER Alexander ZHU Xu-xiang
    2010, 2(2):81-105. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.02.001
    [Abstract](2763) [HTML](0) [PDF 822.05 K](6829)
    Abstract:
    Objective The 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (ACPC) is a natural micromolecule non-protein amino acid that exists only in plants. Despite the determination of its regulating effects on plants, several bioactivities and effects on animals or humans are still unclear. This review focuses the pharmaceutical effects,above all, the neuroprotective effects of ACPC on the cerebro- and cardiovascular system. Methods Two hundred and seventy nine studies were selected and identified from a total of 2457 references in Medline and Chemical Abstracts from 1957 to 2008. Only 38 articles on neuroprotective effects of ACPC from seven different countries qualified to be included in the analysis. Results ACPC has altogether following six general neuroprotective effects on the brain and nervous system: anti-neurotoxicity induced by NMDA, dynorphin-A, glutamate, and morphine; protection from cerebral neurological injury induced by ischemia; antidepressant and anxiolytic effects; anti-convulsion and -seizures and control of epilepsy; facilitation of spatial learning and memory; and the effect of reducing alcohol consumption. Conclusion ACPC has shown a variety of effects on plants and animals. The bioactivities and pharmaceutical effects on animals are of great significance to medical research and public health. Further clinical trials or epidemiological studies are needed to determine its effect in humans. Food intervention with ACPC-rich vegetables and fruits may be a suitable therapy for cerebro- and cardiovascular system diseases. Administration of trace exogenous ACPC could produce vegetables and fruits of rich endogenous ACPC.
    14  In silico Molecular Docking Study of Repensine and Bentysrepinine against HBV DNA Polymerase
    Fan-cui Meng Wei-ren Xu Ya-zhuo Li Zheng-ming Huang Guang-yi Liang Chang-xiao Liu
    2015, 7.
    [Abstract](1896) [HTML](0) [PDF 488.37 K](6546)
    Abstract:
    Bentysrepinine (Y101), a derivative of repensine, is a novel di-peptide structure isolated from Dichondra repens. In vitro and in vivo tests exhibited that bentysrepinine markedly inhibited DNA-HBV and cccDNA activities. The binding mode of Y101 and repensine with DNA polymerase was driven by hydrophobic interactions. This might provide novel recognition of inhibitory effect of Y101 against HBV, though its inhibition mechanism needs to be validated by bio-assay at cellular level and of polymerase activity. Preliminary docking study suggested that Y101 might be able to inhibit HIV inverse transcriptase, also have the potential to interact with DNA polymerase and HCV NS5B polymerase.
    15  Chemical and Pharmacological Researches on Hyoscyamus niger
    LI Jun SHI Ji YU Xin-wen SUN Jing-kuan MEN Qi-ming KANG Ting-guo
    2011, 3(2):117-126. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.02.006
    [Abstract](2744) [HTML](0) [PDF 211.05 K](6493)
    Abstract:
    The reports on chemical constituents of Hyoscyamus niger were summarized. The compounds include alkaloids, saponins, lignans, coumarinolignans, flavonoids, and some other nonalkaloidal compounds. TLC, HPLC, and GC were used for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of some chemical constituents in H. niger. Modern pharmacological experiments showed that H. niger had the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anticonvulsant, spasmolytic, antidiarrhoeal, antisecretory, bronchodilatory, urinary bladder relaxant, hypotensive, cardiosuppressant, vasodilator, antitumor, and feeding deterrent properties. In addition, the toxicities of this medicinal plant were also described.
    16  Network Pharmacology for Traditional Chinese Medicine Research: Methodologies and Applications
    Yu-feng Liu Ni Ai Anthony Keys Xiao-hui Fan Min-jun Chen
    2015, 7.
    [Abstract](1789) [HTML](0) [PDF 299.63 K](6368)
    Abstract:
    The inception of network pharmacology comes from the advance in “multi-target, multi-drug” paradigm and opens up a new field for pharmaceutical science. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is well-known for its use of medicinal herb combinations to treat the functional disorders induced by diseases through a holistic view, which naturally followed the principal of network pharmacology. In this review, the methodologies of network pharmacology in TCM studies were summarized. Specifically, the methodologies for network construction and network analysis were detailed by following several TCM study cases followed. The perspectives for TCM network pharmacology were also provided.
    17  Simultaneous Determination of Five Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Components from roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza by HPLC
    Li-lan Lu Shuang Hou Ting-ting Zheng Xing-li Zhang Jian-he Wei
    2015, 7.
    [Abstract](1691) [HTML](0) [PDF 360.32 K](6251)
    Abstract:
    Objective A reversed-phase HPLC method was established for the simultaneous determination of five hydrophilic and lipophilic components in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Methods Hydrophilic components including danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, and salvianolic acid B, and lipophilic components such as cryptotanshinone and tanshinone IIA, were successfully separated on a Waters Symmetry C18 reverse- phase column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm), with acetonitrile-0.5% phosphoric acid (gradient elution) as mobile phase, the detection wavelength was set at 281 nm with flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, and the column temperature was maintained at 30 °C. Results The recovery of the method was in the range of 95.1%–102.5% and the precision was less than 3% for all five analytes. All the compounds showed good linearity (R2 > 0.9990) in a relatively wide concentration range. Therefore, this HPLC method demonstrated good reproducibility, stability, and accuracy in validation studies. Conclusion Simultaneous quanti?cation of the multiple components by HPLC would be a better strategy for the quality evaluation on the roots of S. miltiorrhiza.
    18  Reflecting the Steps of Modernization of Chinese Materia Medica from the Papers in Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs in 2009
    LIU Yan-ze DAN Yang PENG Yong XIAO Pei-gen
    2010, 2(3):180-188. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.03.004
    [Abstract](1916) [HTML](0) [PDF 265.22 K](5998)
    Abstract:
    The publications on the journal of Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs in Vol.40, 2009 are briefly reviewed in the categories of chemical constituents, preparations and technologies, analysis and quality control, pharmacological and clinical studies, reviews, and finally healthy principles. Some comments, especially for hot topics have been personally provided.
    19  Antibacterial Mechanisms of Berberine and Reasons for Little Resistance of Bacteria
    JIN Jian-ling HUA Guo-qiang MENG Zhen GAO Pei-ji
    2011, 3(1):27-35. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.01.007
    [Abstract](2958) [HTML](0) [PDF 234.17 K](5923)
    Abstract:
    Objective To study the antibacterial mechanisms of berberine and try to understand the reasons why bacteria cells difficultly resisted to it. Methods Detecting the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of bacterial cultures incubated under sub-MIC concentration of berberine, Huanglian, and Neomycin for more than 200 generations, in order to analyze the bacteria resistance. Detecting the binding kinetics of berberine to DNA, RNA, and proteins. Observing the changes in bacterial cell surface structure with scanning electron microscopy. Detecting the Ca2+ and K+ released from berberine-treated bacterial cells with atomic absorption spectrum. Detection the absorption of methyl-3H-thymine (3H-dT), 3H-uridine (3H-U), and 3H-tyrosine (3H-Tyr) into berberine-treated bacterial cells. Results MICs of bacterial cultures, growing more than 200 generations in MH medium with 1/2 MIC of berberine (BA200) or Huanglian (HA200), did not increase compared to the control, while remarkably increased in MH medium with 1/2 MIC of Neomycin (NA200). In addition, from the culture NA200 it was easy to isolate resistant mutant strains which could grow in MH medium with more than four times MIC Neomycin, but from the culture BA200 and HA200 it was difficult to isolate berberine or Huanglian mutant strains could grow in MH medium with more than four times MIC berberine or Huanglian. The binding kinetics of berberine to DNA, RNA, and proteins illustrated that berberine could easily and tightly bind to DNA and RNA, and hardly dis-bind from DNA- and RNA-berberine complexes. Berberine could easily bind to protein too, but also easily dis-bind from berberine-protein complex. The bacterial cells treated with berberine sharply decreased the absorption of 3H-dT, 3H-U, and 3H-Tyr, as the radioactive precursors of DNA, RNA, and protein biosynthesis. Berberine could damage bacterial cell surface structure, especially for Gram-negative bacteria. Ca2+ and K+ released from berberine-treated cells increased significantly compared to the control. Conclusion All of above results indicate that bacterial cells could not easily become resistant mutants to berberine. The mechanisms for the bactericidal effect of berberine include: inhibiting DNA duplication, RNA transcription, and protein biosynthesis; influencing or inhibiting enzyme activities; destructing the bacterial cell surface structure and resulting in Ca2+ and K+ released from cells. All of the berberine bactericidal mechanisms are the most essential physiological functions for a live cell, if influenced any one such function, the mutation would be lethal mutation, so that it is difficult to get berberine resistant cells. The results in this paper also prefigure that berberine and its related Chinese medicines would provide a feasible way to control antibiotic resistance problem.
    20  Challenges in Research and Development of Traditional Chinese Medicines
    LIU Chang-xiao XIAO Pei-gen PENG Yong SONG Nai-ning
    2009, 1(1):1-28. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.年份.期.第几篇文章
    [Abstract](3045) [HTML](0) [PDF 469.82 K](5885)
    Abstract:
    This review is briefly to recall the history of research and development (R&D) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and to discuss the challenges of Chinese traditional and herbal medicines (CTHM) facing the modern science and technology. The R&D of CTHM is thought to be an important pathway for new drug discovery. Since1949, about 140 approved new drugs have been developed, among which about 80 originated directly or indirectly from medicinal plants. CTHM has gained interest from the international medical, biomedical, and pharmaceutical institutions as a valuable source of potential medicines. For the modernization of CMM and innovative research of CTHM, there are following challenges to be faced: (1) to evaluate the efficacy, pharmacological properties, action mechanism, and active chemical constituents; (2) to develop new methodologies for the quality and safety of CTHM; (3) to apply new “-omics” techniques to accelerate drug discoveries developed from CTHM; and (4) to apply international practices including good agricultural practice, good manufacturing practice, good laboratory practice, and good clinical practice in the R&D of CTHM.

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