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  • 1  Influence of Panax ginseng Continuous Cropping on Metabolic Function of Soil Microbial Communities
    YING Yi-xin DING Wan-long ZHOU Ying-qun LI Yong
    2012, 4(4):330-335. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6348.2012.04.011
    [Abstract](1508) [HTML](0) [PDF 188.29 K](2646) [Cited by](2)
    Abstract:
    Objective To investigate the influence of Panax ginseng continuous cropping on the carbon substrate metabolic activity of microbes in soils sampled from Dafang, Huangni, and Wulidi in Jilin Province, China. Methods Soil metabolisms of soil communities were characterized by community level physiological profiles using BIOLOGTM EcoPlate. Results Soils sampled from the three sites were analyzed and their metabolic activities were compared. Principal component analysis explored the significant variance in metabolic function of microbial communities in soils, though the Shannon index and the evenness index of them were similar. Futhermore, two principal components (PC1 and PC2), which contributed 67.83% and 10.78% of total variance, were extracted respectively. And also, substrates significantly correlated with PC1 and PC2 at the three sampling sites were identified. Conclusion Characteristic of soil is the primary factor influencing microbial communities, and P. ginseng continuous cropping has significant influence on microbial community. Though soil samples show similar microbial metabolic profiles, microbial communities in rhizosphere soil are changed obviously during the cultivation of P. ginseng, which would finally result in the unbalance of microbial community. Phytopathogens would gradually be the predominants in rhizosphere soil and make P. ginseng sick.
    2  Effect of n-butanol Extract from Potentilla anserina on Hypoxia- induced Calcium Overload and SERCA2 Expression of Rat Cardiomyocytes
    LI Ling-zhi WANG Lu-jun WANG Yue CUI Ying LI Jian-yu ZHANG Li ZHANG Yong-liang
    2012, 4(2):142-149. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2012.02.008
    [Abstract](1298) [HTML](0) [PDF 541.86 K](2711) [Cited by](1)
    Abstract:
    Objective To investigate the effect of n-butanol extract from Potentilla anserina (NP) intervention on hypoxia-induced Ca2+ overload and SERCA2 expression of rat cardiomyocytes. Methods Primary cultured myocardial cell from SD neonatal rat (1-3 d) was used in the establishment of hypoxia model. After hypoxia for 3 h, the Ca2+ concentration of myocardial cells was measured with fura-2/AM fluorescent probe, and the biochemical indicator intracellular Ca2+-ATPase was examined and the mRNA and its protective protein levels of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-ATPases (SERCA2) were assayed with RT-PCR, Western-blotting, and immune-cytochemical staining in each group. Results The results showed that NP decreased Ca2+ concentration, increased the activity of Ca2+-ATPase, and improved the mRNA and protein expression of SERCA2 in hypoxia-injured myocardial cells as compared with the model group. Conclusion These results indicate that NP could attenuate the Ca2+ overload. The mechanism might be explained as that NP could elevate the SERCA2 level, increase the activity of myocardium in rats, and further enhance the capacity of SR Ca2+ re-uptake.
    3  Simultaneous Determination of Seven Flavonoids in Aerial Parts of Artemisia frigida by HPLC
    WANG Qing-hu AO Wu-li-ji TAI Wen-quan
    2012, 4(3):252-258. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2012.03.013
    [Abstract](1098) [HTML](0) [PDF 210.37 K](1901) [Cited by](1)
    Abstract:
    Objective To establish an HPLC method for the determination of seven flavonoids from the aerial part of Artemisia frigida. Methods Hypersil ODS-2 (300 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column was used, with acetonitril-0.2% phosphoric acid (gradient elution) as a mobile phase, and the detection wavelength was at 283 nm with flow rate at 1 mL/min. Results All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r > 0.9990) within the tested range. All average recovery was more than 98.00% and RSD was less than 3.0% (n = 6). Conclusion The method is steady and with good repeatability, and could be used to determine the content of flavonoids in A. frigida from different areas.
    4  Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China (2010 Edition): A Milestone in Development of China’s Healthcare
    QIAN Zhong-zhi DAN Yang LIU Yan-ze PENG Yong
    2010, 2(2):157-159. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.年份.期.第几篇文章
    [Abstract](5042) [HTML](0) [PDF 217.57 K](24064) [Cited by](1)
    Abstract:
    5  Feature Extraction of Chinese Materia Medica Fingerprint Based on Star Plot Representation of Multivariate Data
    CUI Jian-xin HONG Wen-xue ZHOU Rong-juan GAO Hai-bo
    2011, 3(2):140-143. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.02.009
    [Abstract](2263) [HTML](0) [PDF 142.79 K](19723) [Cited by](1)
    Abstract:
    Objective To study a novel feature extraction method of Chinese materia medica (CMM) fingerprint. Methods On the basis of the radar graphical presentation theory of multivariate, the radar map was used to figure the non-map parameters of the CMM fingerprint, then to extract the map features and to propose the feature fusion. Results Better performance was achieved when using this method to test data. Conclusion This shows that the feature extraction based on radar chart presentation can mine the valuable features that facilitate the identification of Chinese medicine.
    6  Simultaneous determination of 15 flavonoids from different parts of Scutellaria baicalensis and its chemometrics analysis
    Jie Shen Pei Li Chun-nian He Hai-tao Liu Yan-ze Liu Xiao-bo Sun Rong Xu Peigen Xiao
    2019, 11(1):20-27. DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2018.09.005
    [Abstract](916) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](11) [Cited by](1)
    Abstract:
    Objective The aerial parts of Scutellaria baicalensis were used as Huangqin Tea for thousands of years and mainly contain flavonoids which contribute to its bioactivities. However, there is no appropriate quality evaluation method of Huangqin Tea, and three flavanones of isocarthamidin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, carthamidin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, and isoscutellarein-8-O-β-D-glucuronide with high contents in the aerial parts have never been defined quantitatively. Here, an HPLC-DAD method for simultaneous determination of 15 flavonoids and systematically compared their contents and distribution in the roots, stems, leaves, and flowers of S. baicalensis was established. Methods Under the HPLC-DAD chromatographic conditions, 77 batches of samples of S. baicalensis were analyzed. Meanwhile, the chromatographic fingerprint of different parts of S. baicalensis was established. Subsequently, principal component analysis (PCA), orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), and clustering heat map were performed based on the contents of 15 flavonoids in different parts of S. baicalensis. Results The results showed significant differences in the contents and distributions of 15 flavonoids among the different parts of S. baicalensis. The chemical composition of stems showed some similarities to leaves, and their contents were all lower than leaves. The contents of isocarthamidin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide [(106.66 ± 22.68) mg/g], carthamidin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide [(19.82 ± 11.17) mg/g], and isoscutellarein-8-O-β-D-glucuronide [(3.10 ± 1.73) mg/g] were the highest in leaves. The content of apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and chrysin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide were the highest in flowers. The contents of baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside, wogonin, alpinetin, and oroxylin A were higher in roots than in other parts. Conclusion The method was fully validated and could be effectively used to characterize the contents and distributions of main flavonoids in the different parts of S. baicalensis. It may lay a foundation to establish the quality evaluation system for Huangqin Tea.
    7  Extrinsic harmful residues in Chinese herbal medicines: types, detection and safety evaluation
    Cong-min Liu Jia-an Qin Xiao-wen Dou Mei-hua Yang Xiao-bo Sun
    2018, 10(2):116-135. DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2018.02.002
    [Abstract](750) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](16) [Cited by](1)
    Abstract:
    Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) are playing important roles in the treatment of diseases and human health care throughout the world. However the extrinsic harmful residues have been threatening the therapies by destroying CHMs qualtiy which hinders the international trades of CHMs. This review summarized the extrinsic harmful residues contaminating CHMs in types, detection methods, national and international regulations, and made safety evaluations according to their contaminated levels, aiming to establish understanding among nations or organizations and provide references for the formulation or amendment of relative regulations.
    8  Variation of Sweet Chemicals in Different Ripening Stages of Wolfberry Fruits
    Dan Qian Jian Yang Li-ping Kang Rui-feng Ji Lu-qi Huang
    2017, 9(4):329-334. DOI: 10.1016/S1674-6384(17)60112-6
    [Abstract](584) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](15) [Cited by](1)
    Abstract:
    Objective To evaluate the variation of sweet chemicals (sugars and betaine) in fruits of six species in genus Lycium L. i.e. Lycium truncatum, L. cylindricum, L. dasystemum, L. dasystemum var. rubricaulium, L. chinense, and L. barbarum harvested at three different ripening stages. Methods A simple and effective method based on UPLC-ELSD was developed for the simultaneous determination of two monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), two disaccharides (sucrose and maltose), one sugar alcohol (xylitol), and betaine in wolfberry fruits (goji berries) of genus Lycium L. Results The six species of wolfberry fruits harvested at the three different ripening stages were evaluated in sugars and betaine contents. Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars in mature wolfberry fruits. Fructose, glucose, and betaine, as well as total sugar contents, increased continually over the ripening process. L. truncatum and L. dasystemum had higher contents of sugars and betaine than the other species. Conclusion UPLC-ELSD is a simple, reliable and effective method for analysis of the sweet chemicals in wolfberries. Wolfberry fruits at the different ripening stages were significant different in sweetness. L. truncatum and L. dasystemum could be the potential sources of wolfberry fruit sources.
    9  Chemical Constituents from Mycelia and Spores of Fungus Cordyceps cicadae
    Jia-hui Wang Zhong-liang Zhang Yu-qin Wang Min Yang Chun-hua Wang Xu-wen Li Yue-wei Guo
    2017, 9(2):188-192. DOI: 10.1016/S1674-6384(17)60094-7
    [Abstract](1140) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](6) [Cited by](1)
    Abstract:
    Objective To isolate and identify the chemical constituents from mycelia and spores of the fungus Cordyceps cicadae, respectively. Methods The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by repeated silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and reversed phase HPLC. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR. Results Nine known sterols such as ergosterol (1), ergosterol peroxide (2), 9,11-dehydroergosterol peroxide (3), 3β,5α,9α- trihydroxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (4), 3β,5α,9α,14α-tetrahydroxy-(22E, 24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (5), 5α,6α-epoxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-8(14),22-diene- 3β,7α-diol (6), 3β,5α,6β-(22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-3,5,6-triol (7), 3β,5α,6α-6- methoxyergosta-(22E,24R)-7,22-diene-3,5-diol (8), 4-hydroxy-17R-methylincisterol (9), together with a resorcinol derivative, 5-n-nonadecylresorcinol (10), a cyclo- desipeptide, beauvericin (11), and a nucleoside, N6-(2-hydroxyethyl)adenosine (12) were successively isolated from the cultivated C. cicadae mycelia and spores. Conclusion Compounds 3?10 are reported for the first time from the title sample, beauvericin exhibits significant cytotoxicity against human leukemia cell line and human lung cancer cell line.
    10  Flavonoids from Heartwood of Dalbergia cochinchinensis
    Rong-hua Liu Xin-chao Wen Feng Shao Pu-zhao Zhang Hui-lian Huang Shuang Zhang
    2016, 8(1):89-93. DOI: 10.1016/S1674-6384(16)60014-X
    [Abstract](1220) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](13) [Cited by](1)
    Abstract:
    Objective To study the flavonoids from the heartwood of Dalbergia cochinchinensis. Methods The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by combination of silica gel, macroporous resin, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS column chromatography. Their structures were identified by means of spectral analysis. Results Fifteen flavonoids were isolated and identified as pinocembrin (1), liquiritigenin (2), galangin (3), 7-hydroxy- 6-methoxyflavone (4), naringenin (5), alpinetin (6), 2,3-dimethoxyxanthone (7), 6,4′-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-flavan (8), mucronulatol (9), 7,8-dihydroxyflavanone (10), 5,7,3′,5′-tetrahydroxyflavanone (11), 4,2′,5′-trihydroxy-4′-methoxychalcone (12), isoliquiritigenin (13), butein (14), and 3′,5′,5,7-tetrahydroxy-6-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl- flavanone (15), respectively. Conclusion Compounds 7, 8, 10, and 15 are isolated from the plants of Dalbergia L. f. for the first time, and compounds 1, 3, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, and 14 are isolated from this plant for the first time.
    11  Isolation and Chemotaxonomic Significance of Chemical Constituents from Rubus parvifolius
    Quan-xi Mei Xiao-lu Chen Xue Xia Zhi-jian Fang Hong-bo Zhou Yu-qiao Gao Wei-bo Dai Ren-wang Jiang
    2016, 8(1):75-79. DOI: 10.1016/S1674-6384(16)60011-4
    [Abstract](1159) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](12) [Cited by](1)
    Abstract:
    Objective To study the chemical constituents from the roots of Rubus parvifolius. Methods The chemical constituents were extracted and purified by silica gel column chromatography. NMR spectra were used for structural identification. Results Phytochemical study on the roots of R. parvifolius led to the isolation of one ceramide (1), two anthraquinones (2 and 3), four triterpenoids (4-7), two flavonoids (8 and 9), one fatty acid ester (10), and two sterols (11 and 12). Conclusion Compound 1 is isolated from the plants of family Rosaceae for the first time, and compounds 2-5 are isolated from genus Rubus for the first time. Though R. parvifolius shares the same major chemical types (triterpenoid, flavonoid, and anthraquinone) with those of R. alceaefolius, a substituent of R. parvifolius, their individual constituents are different. In addition, R. parvifolius contains ceramide (1) with high concentration, while caffeoylquinic acid reported in R. alceaefolius has not been found in R. parvifolius. Furthermore, the results from our phytochemical study are consistent with the DNA phylogenic relationship between R. parvifolius and R. alceaefolius (two separated subgenera), suggesting that the substitution of the former species with the latter one in folk medicine might not be suitable.
    12  Influence of Allelochemicals on Microbial Community in Ginseng Cultivating Soil
    Yong Li Yi-xin Ying Dong-yue Zhao Wan-long Ding
    2014, 6(4):313-318. DOI: 10.1016/S1674-6384(14)60047-2
    [Abstract](1352) [HTML](0) [PDF 365.99 K](1789) [Cited by](1)
    Abstract:
    Objective To study the influence of allelochemicals such as benzoic acid, diisobutyl phthalate, diisobutyl succinate, palmitic acid, and 2,2-bis-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propane on the microbial community of ginseng cultivating soil. Methods Soil samples were sprayed with five allelochemicals (100 mg/L) and their mixture (20 mg/L), respectively. Carbon metabolic ability variances were analyzed by Biolog method and genetic polymorphism variance was analyzed by RAPD method. The Nei’s genetic diversity index and Shannon’s information index were calculated. Results Significant differences in carbon metabolic activity were found between allelochemical-treated soils and control. Further analysis indicated that although the carbon-utilizing ability and genetic polymorphism of soils treated with di-isobutyl phthalate, di-isobutyl succinate, and allelochemical mixtures were lower than those of the other treatments, genetic similarities of soils treated with di-isobutyl phthalate, diisobutyl succinate, and allelochemical mixtures were much higher than those of the other treatments. Conclusion Allelochemicals significantly declined the genetic diversity and carbon metabolic activity of microorganisms in newly reclaimed forest soil for ginseng cultivation.
    13  Quality Evaluation of Astragali Radix based on DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity and Chemical Analysis
    Hong-wei Wu Jing Fang Li-ying Tang Peng Lu Hai-yu Xu De-feng Li Ye Zhao Yi Zhang Mei-hong Fu Hong-jun Yang Li Xiang
    2014, 6(4):282-289. DOI: 10.1016/S1674-6384(14)60043-5
    [Abstract](1261) [HTML](0) [PDF 391.71 K](1921) [Cited by](1)
    Abstract:
    Objective To assess the quality of Astragali Radix from different areas based on the biological evaluation and chemical analysis. Methods The bioassay method of 1,1- diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity for Astragali Radix was established. The parameters of DPPH assay including sample extraction time, reaction time, repeatability, and stability were detected. Furthermore, a method of HPLC-MS was developed to simultaneously determine calycosin-7-O-glucoside, ononin, formononetin, and astragaloside IV in Astragali Radix samples. And the total flavonoids and total saponins were detected by spectrophotometry. The relationship between DPPH evaluation and chemical analysis was studied by Pearson correlation analysis. Results Twelve batches of Astragali Radix from different origins showed a wide range of DPPH radical scavenging activities (IC50 = 1.395?9.894 μg/mL). Based on DPPH assay, Sample 10 derived from Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IC50 = 1.395 μg/mL) showed the best quality of all samples. Chemical analysis showed that different compounds selected as indices would cause different results for quality evaluation. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that the contents of total flavonoids (P = 0.032), calycosin-7-glucoside (P = 0.035), and astragaloside IV (P = 0.010) were positively correlated with DPPH radical scavenging activity. Conclusion Except for chemical analysis, DPPH radical scavenging activity can be used as a good alternative to assess and control the quality of Astragali Radix.
    14  Changes of Secondary Metabolites and Trace Elements in Gentiana macrophylla Flowers: A Potential Medicinal Plant Part
    Xiao-xue Niu Xiao-wen Chen He Su A. Egrinya Eneji Yu-hai Guo Xue-hui Dong
    2014, 6(2):145-151. DOI: 10.1016/S1674-6384(14)60023-X
    [Abstract](922) [HTML](0) [PDF 328.27 K](2118) [Cited by](1)
    Abstract:
    Objective To search for the potential medicinal plant part of Gentiana macrophylla based on changes of secondary metabolites and trace elements in the flowers of G. macrophylla. Methods HPLC was used to detect the changes of the active constituents (longanic acid, sweroside, gentiopicroside, and swertiamarin) and ICP-AES was used for mineral nutrients in G. macrophylla during flower development. And soluble sugar, starch, crude protein, hemicelluloses, cellulose, and lignin were determined. Results Biomass of flower in full bloom (D2) phase was considerable during flower development, in which the contents of longanic acid and gentiopicroside were at the highest levels with 2.65 and 2.88 times higher than those recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010, sweroside and swertiamarin in the flowers were reaching 6.06 and 1.25 times higher than those in roots. Florescence is the most valuable stage during flower development. The concentration of Fe, Mg, K, P, and B was higher in the flowers than that in roots. The accumulation of active constituents in the plant was influenced by the contents of metabolically linked carbon and nitrogen compounds. Conclusion The secondary metabolites, mineral nutrients, and physicochemical indicators are tightly regulated by flower organ development, D2 is an important stage for both biomass and extraction of active constituents such as longanic acid. The flowers of G. macrophylla could be used as a potential medicinal plant part for longanic acid at a high level.
    15  Screening of Phytoestrogenic Effective Extracts and Dose of Cistanche deserticola
    LI Wen-lan CHEN Qiang YANG Bo GAO Shang ZHANG Jin-jin
    2013, 5(4):292-296. DOI: 10.1016/S1674-6384(13)60043-X
    [Abstract](1074) [HTML](0) [PDF 174.24 K](2091) [Cited by](1)
    Abstract:
    Objective To screen the phytoestrogenic effective extracts and dose of Cistanche deserticola including estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities. Methods The effect of phytoestrogen was determined through uterus growth test in low and high estrogen female model mice. Then MTT assay of the estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells MCF-7 was conducted with the medicated serum of mice. Results After ig administration with 95% ethanol extract of C. deserticola [EECD, 30 g/(kg·d)], the uterus coefficient of low estrogen model mice increased. The medicated serum of 30 g/(kg·d) EECD significantly promoted the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. 40 g/(kg·d) EECD + diethylstilbestrol significantly inhibited the growth of the uterus in high estrogen model mice and the proliferation of MCF-7 cells as well. Conclusion With the dose of 30 g/(kg·d), EECD could exert quasi estrogen effect, and with the dose of 40 g/(kg·d), EECD could exert the estrogen antagonistic action. The method established is accurate and reliable, which could be used for the follow-up studies on the phytoestrogen material basis of C. deserticola.

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