• Current Issue
  • Archive
  • Most Downloaded
    Select AllDeselectExport
    Display Method:
    2020,12(2), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Since December 2019, the SARS-CoV-2 infection has worldwide affected thousands of people and is life-threatening to patients who progress to the severe/critical condition, especially in the elderly. Governments and scientists all over the world are urging for new treatment measures to combat this world epidemic. Ever since the start, most agreements on the measures against COVID-19 rely on early RT-PCR diagnosis, proper quarantine, and vaccination; while treatment strategies rely on the use of multiple anti-viral drugs and cytokine inhibitors. However, when facing of this pandemic, it takes time to develop specific drugs and vaccines. To save life, it is indeed necessary to use the existing experience and knowledge of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Historically, there have been not less documents recorded in the classical TCM literatures about the use of TCM to treat epidemics. In ancient times, there was no Western medicine, while TCM was used on the main historical infectious disease battlefields. Many TCM formulas and products have been widely application in treating infectious and non-infectious diseases. The accumulated clinical experiences and effective prescriptions are believed to be used effectively today. In this urgent period, TCM should be taken into reference as a treatment option because most patients are still suffering. Importantly, there are also academically skilled TCM experts in China who have rich clinical experiences and can properly treat the novel coronavirus pneumonia to achieve curative outcomes. In this issue of Chinese Herbal Medicines, Professor Chang-xiao Liu, the academician of Chinese Academy of Engineering and Editor-in-Chief of this journal, provides his wonderful insights on the outbreak and characteristics of COVID-19 to us, as well as particularly highlights all advantages of the therapeutic TCM principles and formulas for treating this new coronavirus epidemic. His insightful views are able to guide us to use TCM properly to fight this century virus. Since the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection, Chinese Government initiated a policy that the COVID-19 patients should be treated with integrated Chinese and Western medicine because it is believed that such integrative approach would achieve better objective curative effects than that of using any one mono medicine alone. According to the news reports in China, TCM treatment has been applied in over 90% of COVID-19 patients, and some Chinese herbal formulas showed significant potencies of relieving patients’ symptoms, shorting the time of fiver and reducing the cases being conversed from the mild cases into the severe and even the critical ill. The drug action mechanisms of TCM are basically both similar and different from the conventional medicine. For the similarity, although COVID-19 is a new infectious disease, there have been reports to show that certain chemical components contained in a Chinese herbal formula are actually targeting on the pathological and molecular targets of COVID-19 to produce therapeutic effects, such as 3CL Pro, ACE2 and IL6 etc. On the contrary, the curative effects of Chinese herbal formula sometimes are not necessarily by directly inhibiting or killing the virus, but through the integration of various aspects such as relieving cytokines storm syndrome, protecting human tissues and organs, relieving immunological injury and enhancing the body's ability. With quick development of research programs on this new infection, we believe that solid scientific data would be provided to support widely application of TCM against this epidemic. For further implantation of TCM treatment on the novel coronavirus pneumonia worldwide, we would suggest that "full coverage" and "full process" should be ensured in treating COVID-19 patients, together with highly quality assurance of TCM intervention throughout the process. Especially, TCM must be prescribed early, and the sooner the better, so as to prevent the disease from progressing to a serious condition. However, for the severe and critical cases, incorporating TCM into conventional treatment methods are also recommended so as to generate synergistic effect by the combinational therapy of Chinese and Western medicine. Moreover, TCM is able to play very important roles in rehabilitation of COVID-19 patients. Although some patients have reached discharge standard such as negative viral load and relief of observable syndromes, the patients are usually still suffered from the syndrome of qi and yin deficiency or other clinical symptoms and pathological alterations like pulmonary fibrosis and multiple organ functional destruction after immunological injury, which may not be completely resolved during their hospitalization. All these above manifestations, we may call them as a “Post-COVID-19 Syndrome” which is indeed needed for further treatment after discharge; while TCM is an indispensable method that should be promoted to use in such a stage of COVID-19 patients. In the near future, we should further perform comprehensive drug screening based on the reported anti-viral molecular targets with our existing TCM chemical database, as well as the existing marketed drugs. Because scientific data of TCM treatment have not yet been solicited enough, more efforts should be made to expand deeply research on TCM for treating COVID-19 patients. And, we hope that we can enforce the contribution of the TCM treasure box together with modern technological investigation to combat the SARS-CoV-2 infection powerfully, together with internationals.
    2020,12(2), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Since the outbreak of the new coronavirus epidemic, novel coronavirus has infected nearly 100,000 people in more than 110 countries. How to face this new coronavirus epidemic outbreak is an important issue. Basic reproduction number (R0) is an important parameter in epidemiology; The basic reproduction number of an infection can be thought of as the expected number of cases directly generated by one case in a population where all individuals are susceptible to infection. Epidemiology dynamics is a mathematical model based on a susceptibility-infection-recovery epidemic model. Researchers analyzed the epidemiological benefits of different transmission rates for the establishment of effective strategy in prevention and control strategies for epidemic infectious diseases. In this review, the early use of TCM for light and ordinary patients, can rapidly improve symptoms, shorten hospitalization days and reduce severe cases transformed from light and normal. Many TCM formulas and products have wide application in treating infectious and non-infectious diseases. The TCM theoretical system of treating epidemic diseases with TCM and the treatment scheme of integrated Chinese and Western medicine have proved their effectiveness in clinical practice. TCM can cure COVID-19 pneumonia, and also shows that the role of TCM in blocking the progress of COVID-19 pneumonia.
    2020,12(2), DOI:
    Abstract:
    The worldwide botanical and medicinal culture diversity are astonishing and constitute a Pierian spring for innovative drug R&D. Here, the latest awareness and the perspectives of pharmacophylogeny and pharmacophylogenomics, as well as their expanding utility in botanical drug R&D, are systematically summarized and highlighted. Chemotaxonomy is based on the fact that closely related plants contain the same or similar chemical profiles. Correspondingly, it is better to combine morphological characters, DNA markers and chemical markers in the inference of medicinal plant phylogeny. Medicinal plants within the same phylogenetic groups may have the same or similar therapeutic effects, thus forming the core of pharmacophylogeny. Here we systematically review and comment on the versatile applications of pharmacophylogeny in 1) looking for domestic resources of imported drugs, 2) expanding medicinal plant resources, 3) quality control, identification and expansion of herbal medicines, 4) predicting the chemical constituents or active ingredients of herbal medicine and assisting in the identification and determination of chemical constituents, 5) the search for new drugs sorting out, and 6) summarizing and improving herbal medicine experiences, etc. Such studies should be enhanced within the context of deeper investigations of molecular biology and genomics of traditional medicinal plants, phytometabolites and metabolomics, and ethnomedicine-based pharmacological activity, thus enabling the sustainable conservation and utilization of traditional?medicinal resources.
    2020,12(2), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Botanical pentacyclic triterpenes possessed a broad range of pharmacological activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, anti-microbial and anti-in?ammatory. It is believed that the mechanisms involved in these bioactivities are due to the modulation of immune system. Recently, the pharmacological validation on immunomodulatory of pentacyclic triterpenes derived from higher plants is very limited and several existence review papers related for this group of compound have not been focused for this activity. In this review, we have highlighted several studies on immunomodulatory potential of botanical pentacyclic triterpenes isolated from wide array of different species of medicinal plants and herbs based on various preclinical in vitro and animal models. This review also attempts to discuss on bioactivities of this compound related with their structure-activity relationship. Hence, the evaluation of this botanical pentacyclic triterpenes offers a great opportunity to discover adjuvants and novel therapeutic agents that presented beneficial immunomodulatory properties.
    2020,12(2), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective: Critical process parameters (CPPs) identification is an important step of the implementation of quality by design (QbD) concept. There are many CPP identification methods, such as risk analysis method, sensitivity analysis method, multiple linear regression method, standard partial regression coefficient (SPRC) method, and so on. The SPRC method can consider multiple process critical quality attributes (CQAs) simultaneously, but the determination of CPP number is subjective. Therefore, new CPP identification method is still required. Methods: The manufacturing process of Astragali Radix extract, which contained water reflux extraction, concentration, and ethanol precipitation, was used as an example. First, the multiple process CQAs were determined to be the yield of pigment, dry matter, sugars, and active ingredients. Second, the potential CPPs were determined by a knowledge organization method. Plackett-Burman designed experiments were then performed. A weighted determination coefficient () method was presented to identify CPPs. In this method, the importance of different CQAs was considered. Process parameters were removed one-by-one according to their importance index. The decrease in was used to characterize the importance of the removed parameter. If the decrease of was less than a preset threshold, the removed parameter was not a CPP. Results: During the manufacturing process of Astragali Radix extract, the potential CPPs determined by the knowledge organization method were water consumption, reflux extraction time, extraction frequency, ethanol content, ethanol consumption, and concentration endpoint. Reflux extraction time, the first ethanol consumption, the second ethanol consumption, and the second ethanol precipitation refrigeration temperature were found to be CPPs using the weighted determination coefficient method with the threshold of 10%. Conclusion: Using the weighted determination coefficient method, CPPs can be determined with all the CQAs considered based on their importance. The determination of CPP number is more objective compared with the SPRC method.
    2020,12(2), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objectives: While the protective effects of Alhagi maurorum have been shown against various ailments, its role against norfloxacin-induced adverse effects has not been studied. The current study was conducted to determine the effect of A. maurorum aqueous extract against norfloxacin-induced side effects in rats. Methods: Twenty four male albino rats were randomly assigned into four groups, which received normal saline, norfloxacin (50 mg/kg b.wt orally once a day), A. maurorum aqueous extract (300 mg/kg b.wt orally once a day), and norfloxacin with A. maurorum aqueous extract by the same previous mentioned dosages. Blood samples were collected for hematological examination to evaluate liver and kidney function tests. Hepatic and renal tissue samples were obtained to assess antioxidant activity and histopathological examination. Results: A. maurorum aqueous extract significantly ameliorated norfloxacin-induced elevation in tissue malondialdehyde, and reduction in tissue antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities as well as reduced glutathione concentration. Concurrent administration of A. maurorum aqueous extract with norfloxacin significantly reduced serum alkaline phosphatase, aminotransferases, urea, creatinine, and uric acid and increased RBCs count, Hb concentration, PCV, leucocyte, and monocyte counts compared with the norfloxacin-treated group. Co-administration of A. maurorum aqueous extract with norfloxacin prevented the degenerative changes induced by norfloxacin alone in liver and kidney tissues. The phytochemical profile of the extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phenolics, and flavonoids. Conclusion: These findings indicated that A. maurorum possesses potent antioxidant activities and could be used to attenuate norfloxacin-induced side effects.
    2020,12(2), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective: Stress is becoming an unavoidable threat in recent times, there has been increasing interest by researchers in the use of naturally occurring biologically active compounds with medicinal value to cure body ailments. The present work was carried out to investigate the effect of methanol extract of Basella alba leaves on stress in Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus). Methods: A total of 35 male rats were used in this study. They were grouped into seven groups of 5 rats each. Group 1 (normal control) was received 10 mL/kg normal saline. Group 2 contained restraint stress rats only. Group 3 contained forced swim stress rats only. Group 4 and 5 were treated with 60 mg/kg of B. alba extract (BAE) thereafter subjected to restraint and forced swim stresses respectively. Group 6 and 7 were treated with 120 mg/kg of BAE thereafter subjected to restraint and forced swim stresses respectively. Stress procedures were carried out at the end of first and third weeks. Results: In the stressed rats, there were significant increases (P < 0.05) in fasting blood glucose and white blood cell count while there were significant decreases in superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione concentration when compared to group 1. There were significant decreases (P < 0.05) in blood glucose and white blood cell count and significant increases in superoxide dismutase and glutathione concentrations in BAE treated rats when compared to group 2 and 3. Some of the significant differences were either dose or duration dependent. Conclusion: In conclusion, results from this research suggest that BAE alleviates hyperglycaemia, chronic activation of immune system and generation of free radicals due to stress in Wistar rats.
    2020,12(2), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective: Current therapy strategies of leishmaniasis have some problems such as high cost, toxicity and side effects. Plant extracts can be a source of drugs to control leishmaniasis. In this study, the effect of hydroalcoholic and chloroformic extracts of Vigna radiata, Tamarix ramosissima, and Carthamus lanatus on Leishmania major and L. tropica was studied. Methods: The plant samples were collected from west of Iran and their extracts were prepared. Anti-promastigote activity assay of all extracts was done using tetrazolium-dye assay. Results: Only high concentrations of V. radiata and C. lanatus were able to inhibit Leishmania, while both high and low concentrations of T. ramosissima had antileishmanial effect. No difference was observed between hydroalcoholic with chloroformic extract of each plant. Conclusion: Altogether, the results revealed the antileishmanial activity of T. ramosissima extracts against L. major and L. tropica, indicating its potential as an antileishmanial agent.
    2020,12(2), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective: Due to the many negative properties of sodium hypochlorite used in current root canal treatment, interest in biocompatible natural agents is increasing day by day. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether various extract solutions of Sapindus mukorossi have dissolution effects on human pulp tissues. Methods: Primarily powder extracts were obtained by extracting fruit shells of S. mukorossi in different solvents (ethanol, methanol, buthanol and distilled water). The test solutions were prepared and randomly separated into six groups with 10 samples in each group: ethanol extract, methanol extract, butanol extract, distilled water extract of S. mukorossi, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and the control group. Among these, S. mukorossi extracts were separated into two subgroups, depending on their concentration level (50 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL). The pulp tissues of freshly extracted human molars were used for dissolution test. The weights of the pulpal tissues were measured and recorded for two times after the samples were placed in the solutions. Statistical analysis for all descriptive statistics was performed using SPSS 22 (P < 0.05). Results: Our results showed that maximum percent yield of preparation was obtained in methanol extract of S. mukorossi. Among all of the groups, the best dissolution capacity was seen in the NaOCl group (positive control group). Among S. mukorossi groups, the best tissue solvent solution was found in SMM group at 50 μg/mL and SMB group at 100 μg/mL. Conclusion: The different extracts of S. mukorossi had a capacity to dissolve pulp tissue but this capacity was less than NaOCl. Therefore, further studies will enable the creation of a commercial solution for clinical use by increasing the effectiveness of S. mukorossi while combining it with other endodontic irrigation solutions.
    2020,12(2), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective To study the antipyretic and anti-inflammatory constituents from the active fraction of Reduning (RDN) Injection. Methods In this study, the active fraction of RDN injection was screened by the LPS-induced mouse endotoxin shock model. The chemical constituents were isolated by chromatography on HP-20 macroporous adsorptive resins, silica gel, ODS columns and reverse phase MPLC and HPLC repeatedly, and their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic analysis (HR-ESI-MS, NMR, ECD) and chemical methods. Meanwhile, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of the isolates by measuring their inhibitory effects on TNF-α production in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Results The 95% ethanol eluate of RDN injection by the macroporous adsorption resin column was proved to be the antipyretic and anti-inflammatory active fraction of this injection. A novel iridoid, named jasminoide A (1), and a new guaiane sesquiterpenoid, named (1R,7R,8S,10R)-7,8,11-trihydroxy-4-guaien-3-one (2), were isolated from Reduning injection, and compound 2 can inhibit TNF-α production with IC50 values of 72.24 μmol/L. Conclusion In this study, Two new terpenoids were isolated from Reduning injection, and compound 2 showed inhibitory activity against LPS-activated TNF-α production in RAW 264.7 cells in vitro.
    2020,12(2), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective: There are some anthracenone, anthraquinones and flavonones in Sennae Folium which exhibited significant acidity, such as sennoside A/B and sennoside C/D. The current strategy used in separating these components are mainly based on conventional column chromatography which is time consuming, laborious and costly. This study is aimed at exploring a method of precipitation extraction of acid components in Sennae Folium. Using alkaloid as a “hook”, it is reasonable to use the principle of “acid-alkali complexation” to "fish" the acidic components in Sennae Folium. Methods: Isothermal titration calorimeter (ITC) was used to measure the extraction efficiency of different alkaloids. Then, alkaloid determined by ITC was mixed with extracting solution of Sennae Folium to form complex. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS2) was used to investigate the ingredients “fished” by berberine (Ber). The mechanism of “fishing” process was explained by ITC, optical activity, fluorescence spectrometry and scanning electron microscope. Results: The ITC results proved that the choice of “hook” was particularly important in the process of “fishing”. Among the hooks, the fishing efficiency of the isoquinoline alkaloids (Ber) was the highest, reaching 10.3%. Nine ingredients were detected and determined by HPLC-MS2, and the main components were sennoside A/B and sennoside C/D. Based on ITC test of Ber and sennoside A, the combination mechanism of the two ingredients was a chemical reaction with a nearly binding ratio (2:1). Fluorescence and optical properties of the active ingredients were changed after complexation. By scanning electron microscope, we found that two types of components had obviously self-assembled behavior during the formation process. Conclusion: Ber successfully “fished” the main acidic components, sennoside A/B and sennoside C/D, from Sennae Folium. Combined with different characterizations, the “fishing” process was determined as a chemical association reaction induced by electrostatic interaction or π-π stacking. Therefore, with special identification ability, the “fishing” process had the potential of practical application.
    2020,12(2), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective To investigate the hypoglycemic components from the acid hydrolyzates of Panax quinquefolius total saponins,and screen the active compounds by in vitro inhibitory activities to α-glycosidase enzymes and protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B). Methods The hydrolyzates were chromatographed repeatedly over silica gel column, and the structures of the compounds were determined by means of NMR. The in vitro bioassay was performed through the inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase or/and PTP1B. Results Eight compounds were isolated, which identified as 20(S)-panaxadiol (1), (20S,24R)-dammarane-20,24-epoxy-3β,6α,12β,25-tetraol (2), 20(R)-dammarane-3β,12β,20,25-tetraol (3), 20(S)-dammarane-3β,6α,12β,20,25-pentol (4), 20(R)-dammarane-3β,12β,20,25-tetrahydroxy-3β-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), β-sitosterol (6), oleanolic acid (7) and 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (8). Compound 5 was ginseng triterpenoid isolated from the acid hydrolysates of total saponins from P. quinquefolius for the first time. In this paper, the possible in vitro inhibitory activities were investigated. Compound 5 exhibited significantly inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase, and the IC50 value [(0.22 ± 0.21) μmol/L] was about 43-fold lower than positive control. For the PTP1B inhibition assay, compound 5 indicated the strongest inhibitory effect with IC50 of (5.91 ± 0.38) μmol/L, followed by compound 4 with IC50 of (6.21 ± 0.21) μmol/L, which were all showed competitive inhibitory pattern by using a Lineweaver-Burk plot. Conclusion These results supported the potential application of dammaranes from acid hydrolyzates of P. quinquefolius total saponins can be used as ingredients of ancillary anti-diabetic agent or functional factor.
    2020,12(2), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective: The study was conducted to develop and validate a high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC)-densitometric method for the quantitative analysis of morin in Maclura cochinchinensis heartwood collected from different locations in Thailand. Methods: HPTLC analysis was performed on an aluminium sheet of silica gel 60 F254 using toluene: ethyl acetate: formic acid (36:12:7, volume percent) as a mobile phase. The densitometric scanning was performed at the wavelength 410 nm. HPTLC method was validated according to ICH guideline. Results: The proposed HPTLC method showed acceptable validation parameters. The content of morin in M. cochinchinensis heartwood collected from eight different provinces in Thailand were in the ranges of 1.53%?2.73%. Conclusion: The simple and sensitive HPTLC method was successfully developed and validated for determination of morin in M. cochinchinensis heartwood. The proposed HPTLC method was found to be simple, fast and inexpensive, and can be used for the routine quality control of raw materials.
    Select AllDeselectExport
    Display Method:
    2012,4(1):63-69, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2012.01.010
    [Abstract] (1546) [HTML] (0) [PDF 160.29 K] (9771)
    Abstract:
    Objective To identify and analyze the volatile constituents in the leaves and fruits of Ficus carica. Methods Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used. Results The major components detected in volatile oil of the leaves were psoralen (10.12%), β-damascenone (10.17%), benzyl alcohol (4.56%), behenic acid (4.79%), and bergapten (1.99%), etc. The major components detected in volatile oil of the fruits were furfural (10.55%), 5-methyl-2-furaldehyde (10.1%), and benzeneacetaldehyde (6.59%), etc. Conclusion A total of 121 volatile constituents are identified in the leaves and 108 in the fruits of F. carica, among which 103 constituents are identified for the first time in the leaves and 100 in the fruits. Eighteen volatile constituents are identified in both leaves and fruits.
    2012,4(3):245-251, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2012.03.012
    [Abstract] (2173) [HTML] (0) [PDF 221.06 K] (9507)
    Abstract:
    Objective Establishing a ?ngerprint method to identify the characteristic chemicals in the roots of Gentiana macrophylla and evaluate their quality. Methods RP-HPLC was developed for ?ngerprint analysis and determination of four ingredients in G. macrophylla roots from different sources. LC-ESI-TOF-MS was employed to identify the chromatographic peaks of the ?ngerprint. Results Five common peaks were identified by comparing their retention time with reference secoiridoid glucosides. Eight major peaks in chromatographic fingerprint were analyzed by on-line LC-ESI-TOF-MS. Four secoiridoid glucosides were identified based on their MS data. Conclusion The method is specific and could be served for the quality identi?cation and comprehensive evaluation of G. macrophylla.
    2010,2(4):272-288, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.04.005
    [Abstract] (2867) [HTML] (0) [PDF 307.65 K] (9440)
    Abstract:
    Callicarpa Linn. (beautyberry) is one of the major genera in Verbenaceous, about 20 of which are medicinal plants. Beautyberry, called Zizhu in China, is a generic name of those species and largely used as hemostatic medicine. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 has admitted three new crude drugs from the genus of Callicarpa Linn. including Callicarpae Macrophyllae Folium, Callicarpae Caulis et Folium, and Callicarpae Formosanae Folium for the first time since the 1977 version of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. In order to better understand these new crude drugs, we systematically described their bibliography, admission reasons, botanical identification, chemistry, and pharmacology. Several other species, out of national regulations but intensively studied and widely used, are also covered in this review.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (1997) [HTML] (0) [PDF 503.58 K] (8500)
    Abstract:
    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has developed over thousands of years and has accumulated abundant clinical experience, forming a comprehensive and unique medical system. Emerging evidence has begun to illustrate TCM as an area of important medical rediscoveries. This paper briefly introduced the concept, significance, and technology of network pharmacology based on network biology and systems biology. It focused on the theoretical system and potential prospect of TCM network applied in TCM research and development including predicting new drug targets, action mechanism, new drug discovery; evaluating pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, safety, toxicology, quality control, and bioinformatics of drugs. We also discussed the opportunities and challenges in the development and application of network pharmacology in the modernization of TCM research.
    [Abstract] (1933) [HTML] (0) [PDF 583.26 K] (7935)
    Abstract:
    Rhubarb is a perennial herb belonging to the genus Rheum L. (Polygonaceae). Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (rhubarb roots and rhizomes) is one of the most popular Chinese materia medica and has been widely used for strong laxative function. About 200 compounds with six different types of skeletons (anthraquinone, anthrone, stilbene, flavonoids, acylglucoside, and pyrone) have so far been isolated from eighteen species of the genus Rheum L. These constituents showed extensive pharmacological activities including cathartic, diuretic, anticancer, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects, as well as toxicological effects. Chemical fingerprint, LC-MS, and other analytical techniques have been used for the quality control of rhubarb. This comprehensive review summarizes the researches into the isolation, pharmacological activities, and phytochemical analysis reported since investigations began in the late 1940s. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies and clinical application of rhubarb are also discussed in present paper.
    2010,2(2):148-152, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.02.010
    [Abstract] (3095) [HTML] (0) [PDF 215.71 K] (7142)
    Abstract:
    Objective To develop an efficient method to isolate and purify the main components isoaloeresin D and aloin from Aloe vera for its industrial production. Methods High-speed counter-current chromatography was used to isolate isoaloeresin D and aloin in a one-step separation from dried crude extract of A. vera. The biphasic solvent system composed of hexane-ethyl acetate-acetone-water (0.2︰5︰1.5︰5) was used at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, while the lipophilic phase was selected as the mobile phase and the apparatus was rotated at 840 r/min. The effluent was detected at 254 nm. Results Isoaloeresin D (53.1 mg) and aloin (106.9 mg) were separated from the crude extract (384.7 mg) with the purities of 98.6% and 99.5%, respectively. Conclusion HSCCC is a powerful technique for isolation and separation of chemical composition from aloe.
    2010,2(4):250-261, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.04.003
    [Abstract] (2759) [HTML] (0) [PDF 401.07 K] (6724)
    Abstract:
    For the protection of consumers and developments of relevant industry, authentication of medicinal plants is a critical issue. This review covers various aspects of authentication methods and techniques based on molecular biology and genomics with special emphasis on molecular biology techniques including genome-based authentication, microchip-based authentication, DNA barcoding, and their applications.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (1694) [HTML] (0) [PDF 324.52 K] (6543)
    Abstract:
    Objective To predict the total flavonoids concentration of Aurantii Fructus fried with bran in its extraction process. Methods Ultraviolet spectrophotometry was used to determine the concentration of total flavonoids in different extraction time (t ) and solvent load (M ). Then the predicted procedure was carried out using the following data: 1) based on Ficks second law, the parameters of the kinetic model could be deduced and the equation was established; 2) Locally weighted regression (LWR) code was developed in the WEKA software environment to predict the concentration. And then we used both methods to predict the concentration of total flavonoids in new experiments. Results After comparing the predicted results with the experimental data, the LWR model had better accuracy and performance in the prediction. Conclusion LWR is applied to analyze the extraction process of Chinese herb for the first time, and it is totally fit for the extraction. LWR-based system is a more simple and accurate way to predict than the established equation. It is a good choice especially for a process which exists no clearly rules, and can be used in the real-time control during the process.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (1670) [HTML] (0) [PDF 273.72 K] (6453)
    Abstract:
    Cistanches Herba, a famous traditional Chinese materia medica, has a laudatory title “desert ginseng”. According to Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2000, Cistanches Herba is the dry fleshy stem with scale-like leaves of Cistanche deserticola. In order to expand the drug source, Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2005 increased the plants in Cistanche Hoffmg. et Link (Orobanchaceae), C. tubulosa, and dry scaly leaf succulent stems were as genuine Cistanches Herba and still in use. In order to have more comprehensive understanding on Cistanches Herba, this paper focuses the reviews on the biological characteristics, chemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of Cistanches Herba, and its development prospects are looked forward. It provides the relative theoretical basis for the subsequent research work of Cistanches Herba and can be conducive to the development and utilization of Cistanches Herba.
    2010,2(2):81-105, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.02.001
    [Abstract] (2698) [HTML] (0) [PDF 822.05 K] (6447)
    Abstract:
    Objective The 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (ACPC) is a natural micromolecule non-protein amino acid that exists only in plants. Despite the determination of its regulating effects on plants, several bioactivities and effects on animals or humans are still unclear. This review focuses the pharmaceutical effects,above all, the neuroprotective effects of ACPC on the cerebro- and cardiovascular system. Methods Two hundred and seventy nine studies were selected and identified from a total of 2457 references in Medline and Chemical Abstracts from 1957 to 2008. Only 38 articles on neuroprotective effects of ACPC from seven different countries qualified to be included in the analysis. Results ACPC has altogether following six general neuroprotective effects on the brain and nervous system: anti-neurotoxicity induced by NMDA, dynorphin-A, glutamate, and morphine; protection from cerebral neurological injury induced by ischemia; antidepressant and anxiolytic effects; anti-convulsion and -seizures and control of epilepsy; facilitation of spatial learning and memory; and the effect of reducing alcohol consumption. Conclusion ACPC has shown a variety of effects on plants and animals. The bioactivities and pharmaceutical effects on animals are of great significance to medical research and public health. Further clinical trials or epidemiological studies are needed to determine its effect in humans. Food intervention with ACPC-rich vegetables and fruits may be a suitable therapy for cerebro- and cardiovascular system diseases. Administration of trace exogenous ACPC could produce vegetables and fruits of rich endogenous ACPC.
    2011,3(2):150-155, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.02.011
    [Abstract] (2247) [HTML] (0) [PDF 157.86 K] (6270)
    Abstract:
    Objective Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is widely used as a spice in cooking and as a medicinal herb in traditional herbal medicine. The present study was to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ginger oil in experimental animal models. Methods The analgesic effect of the oils was evaluated by the “acetic acid” and “hot-plate” test models of pain in mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of the oil was investigated in rats, using rat paw edema induced by carrageenan, adjuvant arthritis, and vascular permeability induced by bradykinin, arachidonic acid, and histamine. Indomethacin (1 mg/kg), Aspirin (0.5 g/kg) and Dexamethasone (2.5 mg/kg) were used respectively as reference drugs for comparison. Results The ginger oil (0.25-1.0 g/kg) produced significant analgesic effect against chemically- and thermally-induced nociceptive pain stimuli in mice (P < 0.05, 0.01). And the ginger oil (0.25-1.0 g/kg) also significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema, adjuvant arthritis, and inflammatory mediators-induced vascular permeability in rats (P < 0.05, 0.001). Conclusion These findings confirm that the ginger oil can be used to treat pain and chronic inflammation such as rheumatic arthritis.
    2011,3(2):117-126, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.02.006
    [Abstract] (2660) [HTML] (0) [PDF 211.05 K] (6110)
    Abstract:
    The reports on chemical constituents of Hyoscyamus niger were summarized. The compounds include alkaloids, saponins, lignans, coumarinolignans, flavonoids, and some other nonalkaloidal compounds. TLC, HPLC, and GC were used for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of some chemical constituents in H. niger. Modern pharmacological experiments showed that H. niger had the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anticonvulsant, spasmolytic, antidiarrhoeal, antisecretory, bronchodilatory, urinary bladder relaxant, hypotensive, cardiosuppressant, vasodilator, antitumor, and feeding deterrent properties. In addition, the toxicities of this medicinal plant were also described.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (1864) [HTML] (0) [PDF 488.37 K] (6080)
    Abstract:
    Bentysrepinine (Y101), a derivative of repensine, is a novel di-peptide structure isolated from Dichondra repens. In vitro and in vivo tests exhibited that bentysrepinine markedly inhibited DNA-HBV and cccDNA activities. The binding mode of Y101 and repensine with DNA polymerase was driven by hydrophobic interactions. This might provide novel recognition of inhibitory effect of Y101 against HBV, though its inhibition mechanism needs to be validated by bio-assay at cellular level and of polymerase activity. Preliminary docking study suggested that Y101 might be able to inhibit HIV inverse transcriptase, also have the potential to interact with DNA polymerase and HCV NS5B polymerase.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (1760) [HTML] (0) [PDF 299.63 K] (5931)
    Abstract:
    The inception of network pharmacology comes from the advance in “multi-target, multi-drug” paradigm and opens up a new field for pharmaceutical science. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is well-known for its use of medicinal herb combinations to treat the functional disorders induced by diseases through a holistic view, which naturally followed the principal of network pharmacology. In this review, the methodologies of network pharmacology in TCM studies were summarized. Specifically, the methodologies for network construction and network analysis were detailed by following several TCM study cases followed. The perspectives for TCM network pharmacology were also provided.
    2010,2(3):180-188, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.03.004
    [Abstract] (1873) [HTML] (0) [PDF 265.22 K] (5698)
    Abstract:
    The publications on the journal of Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs in Vol.40, 2009 are briefly reviewed in the categories of chemical constituents, preparations and technologies, analysis and quality control, pharmacological and clinical studies, reviews, and finally healthy principles. Some comments, especially for hot topics have been personally provided.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (1665) [HTML] (0) [PDF 360.32 K] (5645)
    Abstract:
    Objective A reversed-phase HPLC method was established for the simultaneous determination of five hydrophilic and lipophilic components in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Methods Hydrophilic components including danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, and salvianolic acid B, and lipophilic components such as cryptotanshinone and tanshinone IIA, were successfully separated on a Waters Symmetry C18 reverse- phase column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm), with acetonitrile-0.5% phosphoric acid (gradient elution) as mobile phase, the detection wavelength was set at 281 nm with flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, and the column temperature was maintained at 30 °C. Results The recovery of the method was in the range of 95.1%–102.5% and the precision was less than 3% for all five analytes. All the compounds showed good linearity (R2 > 0.9990) in a relatively wide concentration range. Therefore, this HPLC method demonstrated good reproducibility, stability, and accuracy in validation studies. Conclusion Simultaneous quanti?cation of the multiple components by HPLC would be a better strategy for the quality evaluation on the roots of S. miltiorrhiza.
    2016,8(3):196-208, DOI: 10.1016/S1674-6384(16)60043-6
    Abstract:
    Chinese Pharmacopoeia is updated every five years, of which traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is the most important part. The 2015 version completed by the 10th Pharmacopoeia Commission has come into operation since December 1, 2015. Here we introduced the revision and improvement of quality evaluation and control standards of TCMs in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015.
    2011,3(3):186-195, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.03.004
    [Abstract] (2126) [HTML] (0) [PDF 263.73 K] (5357)
    Abstract:
    Eurycoma longifolia, also known as Tongkat Ali in Malaysia, as one of traditional herbal medicines, is used for centuries in South-East Asia. With the discovery of anticancer and anti-HIV properties, this herbal medicine has attracted great attention recently. In this review, the following information on E. longifolia, including chemistry, bioactivities, pharmacokinetics, clinical studies, and side effects and safety, was introduced. Our results, to a certain extent, will provide scientific base for commercial utilization and clearance of the Tongkat Ali products with regard to consumers’ safety.
    2011,3(1):27-35, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.01.007
    [Abstract] (2885) [HTML] (0) [PDF 234.17 K] (5349)
    Abstract:
    Objective To study the antibacterial mechanisms of berberine and try to understand the reasons why bacteria cells difficultly resisted to it. Methods Detecting the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of bacterial cultures incubated under sub-MIC concentration of berberine, Huanglian, and Neomycin for more than 200 generations, in order to analyze the bacteria resistance. Detecting the binding kinetics of berberine to DNA, RNA, and proteins. Observing the changes in bacterial cell surface structure with scanning electron microscopy. Detecting the Ca2+ and K+ released from berberine-treated bacterial cells with atomic absorption spectrum. Detection the absorption of methyl-3H-thymine (3H-dT), 3H-uridine (3H-U), and 3H-tyrosine (3H-Tyr) into berberine-treated bacterial cells. Results MICs of bacterial cultures, growing more than 200 generations in MH medium with 1/2 MIC of berberine (BA200) or Huanglian (HA200), did not increase compared to the control, while remarkably increased in MH medium with 1/2 MIC of Neomycin (NA200). In addition, from the culture NA200 it was easy to isolate resistant mutant strains which could grow in MH medium with more than four times MIC Neomycin, but from the culture BA200 and HA200 it was difficult to isolate berberine or Huanglian mutant strains could grow in MH medium with more than four times MIC berberine or Huanglian. The binding kinetics of berberine to DNA, RNA, and proteins illustrated that berberine could easily and tightly bind to DNA and RNA, and hardly dis-bind from DNA- and RNA-berberine complexes. Berberine could easily bind to protein too, but also easily dis-bind from berberine-protein complex. The bacterial cells treated with berberine sharply decreased the absorption of 3H-dT, 3H-U, and 3H-Tyr, as the radioactive precursors of DNA, RNA, and protein biosynthesis. Berberine could damage bacterial cell surface structure, especially for Gram-negative bacteria. Ca2+ and K+ released from berberine-treated cells increased significantly compared to the control. Conclusion All of above results indicate that bacterial cells could not easily become resistant mutants to berberine. The mechanisms for the bactericidal effect of berberine include: inhibiting DNA duplication, RNA transcription, and protein biosynthesis; influencing or inhibiting enzyme activities; destructing the bacterial cell surface structure and resulting in Ca2+ and K+ released from cells. All of the berberine bactericidal mechanisms are the most essential physiological functions for a live cell, if influenced any one such function, the mutation would be lethal mutation, so that it is difficult to get berberine resistant cells. The results in this paper also prefigure that berberine and its related Chinese medicines would provide a feasible way to control antibiotic resistance problem.

WeChat

Mobile website