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    2021,13(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    We are coming to the end of 2020. In 2020, we’ve seen our party, government, doctors, and scientists use TCM products and medical technology in the treatment of the COVID-19 disease, but in new year of 2021, we face a new variant of the disease that requires a new vigilance, we need good drugs and vaccines to control and therapy of COVID-19. For CHM, 2021 is the year we can develop and believe CHM better. We are going on the way to the combination with our loved ones in the CHM by the normal and scientific edition way. In new issue in 2021, CHM published and contributed four papers on the study of the CHM's quality evaluation. 1.Quality is life By always remembering "Quality is life" of all of brands, we should invent innovated and striking strategies to meet the requirements of any medicinal products. Now, we are qualified to provide higher quality of medicinal products with efficiency and safety. We believe quality is the life of enterprise, the more pursues integrity, pragmatic and efficient operation of this, adhere to the cast quality brand, service in promoting the medical brand. One is primarily around the management of architectural changes across the life cycle, and another of course is managing this issue of quality across the all life cycle in the process of research, development, production and application. Our study is always remembering "Quality?is?life” in?innovated?methods, technologies, tools to?meet?the?requirements?of?clinical higher?efficiency and safety. 2. Quality study needs innovation Quality study is a system engineering, it needs new science theory, new techonology, new methods and tools. Such as chemometric smart tools are systematically analysis which will bring a profound effect on the ‘material basis and Q-markers’ exploration from TCMs. After data procession, the precise qualitative and quantitative results in chemical fingerprints and metabolic trajectories can ensure the reliability of “material basis and Q-markers" results (Chinese Herbal Medicines, 13(1), 4-18). Usually the data only obtained by chromatography-related technology cannot disclose the material basis or Q-markers in TCMs fully. The integration of multi-dimensional data can be clarified from multiple levels and multiple perspectives. With the development of chemometric tools, the drug properties/efficacy-related components and Q-markers will be more accurately for the internationalization and modernization of TCMs. Great challenges remain in optimizing the detection of herbal medicines and processing and mining data from the complex information obtained. An integrated strategy toward comprehensive characterization and quantification of multiple components was carried out in Gelsemium elegans (Chinese Herbal Medicines, 13(1), 19-38). This work contributed to the development of a powerful integrated strategy for chemical research based on liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) systems. Prof. Li’s team explored PAGE and HPTLC methods to evaluate Astragalus Radix from different germplasm resources (Chinese Herbal Medicines, 13(1), 39-50). In the research paper “A mathematical model for quality evaluation of total saponins of Panax japonicas based on hypolipidemic activity” (Chinese Herbal Medicines, 13(1), 51-56), authors performed the preliminarily explore for the establishment of a quality assessment method for total saponins of Panax japonicas associated with the hypolipidemic activity. All these attempts were with aim to make exploration for the innovation and standardization for TCM industy progress. Quality evaluation of TCM is one of important guarantees for safe drug use in clinical application. 3. Chinese Herbal Medicines contributed innovation development of TCM We always dedicated our great efforts and financial support to promote the development of journal, with view to providing an international communication platform for the up-to-date research achievements in the field of traditional Chinese Medicines. Chinese Herbal Medicines have published five research papers on TCM therapy of COVID-19 in special 2020 with lots of attention at home and abroad. We have successfully applied for China Science and Technology Journals Excellence Action Plan and been newly included in Scopus and DOAJ in 2020. In the 2021 New Year, CHM’s publishers sincerely thank to the experts of editorial board and all the authors, reviewers and readers for your loving and supporting. Let us work together to promote the innovative development of TCM.
    2021,13(1), DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2020.05.006
    Abstract:
    Modern chromatography - mass spectrometer (MS) technology is an essential weapon in the exploration of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) which is based on the ‘effectiveness-material basis-quality markers (Q-markers)’. Nevertheless, the hardware bottleneck and irregular operation will limit the accuracy and comprehensiveness of test results. Chemometrics was thereby used to solve the existing problems: 1) The method of ‘design-modeling-optimization’ can be adopted to solve the multi-factor and multi-level problems in sample preparation/ parameter setting; 2) The approaches of signal processing can be used to calibrate the deviation from retention time (rt) dimension and mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) dimension in different types of instruments; 3) The methods of multivariate calibration and multivariate resolution can be utilized to analyze the co-eluting peaks in complex samples. When the researchers need to capture essential information on raw data sets extracting the higher level of information on essential features, 1) The significant components which affects the drug properties/efficacy can be find by the pattern recognition and variable selection; 2) Fingerprint-efficacy modeling is explored to clarify the material basis, or to screen out the Q-markers of biological significance; 3) Chemometric tools can apply to integrate chemical (metabolic) fingerprints with network pharmacology, bioinformatics, omics and others from a multi-level perspective. Under these programs, the qualitative/quantitative works will achieve in chemical (metabolic) fingerprint and metabolic trajectories, which leads to an accurate reflection of ‘material basis and Q-markers’ in TCMs. Likewise, an in-depth hidden information can be disclosed, so that the components of drug properties/efficacy will be found. More importantly, multidimensional data can be integrated with fingerprints to acquire more hidden information.
    2021,13(1), DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2020.06.002
    Abstract:
    Objective: To develop a powerful integrated strategy based on liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) systems for the comprehensive characterization and quantification of multiple components of herbal medicines. Methods: Firstly, different mobile phase additives, analysis time, and MS acquisition modes were orthogonally tested with liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF/MS) in order to detect as many components of Gelsemium elegans as possible with high peak intensity. Secondly, several data mining strategies, including database searching, diagnostic ion filtering and neutral loss filtering, were utilized to perform chemical profiling. Subsequently, this study focused on the quantification and validation of the performance of a liquid chromatography-triple mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ/MS) assay based on derivative multiple reaction monitoring (DeMRM). Results: A total of 147 components from G. elegans were characterized, among them 116 nontarget components were reported for the first time. A sensitive and reproducible LC-QqQ/MS method was successfully developed and validated for the simultaneous relative quantification of 41 components of G. elegans. This LC-QqQ/MS method was then applied to compare the contents of components in the roots, stems and leaves. Conclusion: The present integrated strategy would significantly contribute to chemical studies on herbal medicine, and its utility could be extended to other research fields, such as metabolomics, quality control, and pharmacokinetics.
    2021,13(1), DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2020.04.004
    Abstract:
    Objective: The chemical finger printing-based methods for evaluating TCMs quality can report partial of TCMs quality without linking to effective constituents. In this study, a mathematical model was established for the quality evaluation of total saponins of Panax japonicus (TSPJ), a folk medicine in China and Japan for treating diseases, through coupling the dynamic changes of chemical constitutions with corresponding activities. Methods: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprints were applied to establish the chromatographic database of TSPJ. The associated hypolipidemic activity database was determined by TG assay using HepG2 cell model. Correlation analyses of two databases were performed by partial least squares (PLS) for calculating regression coefficients, and the interval value of YZL value (the ratio of positive and negative peak-to-peak area coefficient) closely related to hypolipidemic activity was refined by the formula of Norminv function to value the quality of TSPJ. Results: In this study, the chromatographic data of 16 common peaks were obtained from 20 batches of TSPJ. After the estimate by this mathematical evaluation model, seven peaks were positively correlated with hypolipidemic activity, and nine peaks were negatively correlated with hypolipidemic activity. When the YZL value was less than 0.7861, the quality of sample was inferior, while YZL value was more than 6.6992, and the quality of samples was superior. The quality of another ten batches of TSPJ was further assessed to verify this method. Conclusion: These results indicated that the established model could be usefully applied to evaluate the quality of TSPJ in the hypolipidemic activity.
    2021,13(1), DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2020.09.002
    Abstract:
    Ischemic heart diseases are one of the major causes of death worldwide. Effective restoration of blood flow can significantly improve patients’ quality of life and reduce mortality. However, reperfusion injury cannot be ignored. Flavonoids possess well-established antioxidant properties; They also have other benefits that may be relevant for ameliorating myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury (MIRI). In this review, we focus on flavonoids with cardiovascular-protection function and emphasize their pharmacological effects. The main mechanisms of flavonoid pharmacological activities against MIRI involve the following aspects: a) antioxidant, b) anti-inflammatory, c) anti-platelet aggregation, d) anti-apoptosis, and e) myocardial-function regulation activities. We also summarized the effectiveness of flavonoids for MIRI.
    2021,13(1), DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2020.12.003
    Abstract:
    Panax japonicus, which in the Tujia dialect is known as “Baisan Qi” and “Zhujieshen”, is a classic “qi” drug of Tujia ethnomedicine and it has unique effects on disease caused by “qi” stagnation and blood stasis. This paper serves as the basis of further scientific research and development of Panax japonicus. The pharmacology effects of molecular pharmacology were discussed and summarized. P. japonicus plays an important role on several diseases, such as rheumatic arthritis, cancer, cardiovascular agents, and this review provides new insights into P. japonicus as promising agents to substitute ginseng and notoginseng.
    2021,13(1), DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2020.08.001
    Abstract:
    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), with a history of thousands of years, are widely used clinically with effective treatment. However, the drug delivery systems (DDSs) for TCMs remains major challenges due to the characteristics of multi-components including alkaloids, flavones, anthraquinones, glycosides, proteins, volatile oils and other types. Therefore, the novel preparations and technology of modern pharmaceutics is introduced to improve TCM therapeutic effects due to instability and low bioavailability of active ingredients. Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, the radix and rhizomes of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen in Chinese), is a well known Chinese herbal medicine for protecting the cardiovascular system, with active ingredients mainly including lipophilic tanshinones and hydrophilic salvianolic acids. In this review, this drug is taken as an example to present challenges and strategies in progress of DDSs for TCMs. This review would also summary the characteristics of active ingredients in it including physicochemical properties and pharmacological effects. The purpose of this review is to provide inspirations and ideas for the DDSs designed from TCMs by summarizing the advances on DDSs for both single- and multi-component from Danshen.
    2021,13(1), DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2020.11.002
    Abstract:
    Sandalwood essential oil has been widely used not only as natural medicines but also in perfumery and food industries, with sesquiterpenoids as its major components including (Z)- α-santalol and (Z)-β-santalol and so on. The mature heartwoods of Santalum album, Santalum austrocaledonicum and Santalum spicatum are the major plant resources for extracting sandalwood essential oil, which have been overexploited. Synthetic biology approaches have been successfully applied to produce natural products on large scale. In this review, we summarize biosynthetic enzymes of santalenes and santalols, including various santalene synthases (STSs) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs), and then highlight the advances of biotechnological production of santalenes and santalols in heterologous hosts, especially metabolic engineering strategies for constructing santalene- and santalol-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
    2021,13(1), DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2020.11.003
    Abstract:
    Objective: Peptidyl alkaloids, a series of important natural products can be assembled by fungal non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). However, many of the NRPSs associated gene clusters are silent under laboratory conditions, and the traditional chemical separation yields are low. In this study, we aim to discovery and efficiently prepare fungal peptidyl alkaloids assembled by fungal NRPSs. Methods: Bioinformatics analysis of gene cluster containing NRPSs from the genome of Penicillium thymicola, and heterologous expression of the putative gene cluster in Aspergillus nidulans were performed. Isolation, structural identification, and biological evaluation of the product from heterologous expression were carried out. Results: The putative tri-modular NRPS AncA was heterologous-expressed in A. nidulans to give anacine (1) with high yield, which showed moderate and selective cytotoxic activity against A549 cell line. Conclusion: Heterologous expression in A. nidulans is an efficient strategy for mining fungal peptidyl alkaloids.
    2021,13(1), DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2020.12.004
    Abstract:
    Objective: Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra (SN). Our previous study demonstrated kukoamine A (KuA) to exhibit strong neuroprotective effects through antioxidative stress, and autophagy in MPTP/MPP+-induced PD models in vivo and in vitro. It is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of the anti-PD effects under various models. Methods: In the present study, total chemical synthesis was used to obtain KuA, which performed low content in Lycii Cortex. Then, 6-OHDA-induced PD model of PC12 cells was used to investigate the effects of KuA on PD. Results: Our results demonstrated that KuA ameliorated cell loss and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss, and inhibited Bax/Bcl-2 ratio increase that were induced by 6-OHDA. Iron accumulation in SN is thought to participate in neuronal death in PD, which subsequently resulted in oxidative stress and overexpression of α-synuclein caused by iron metabolism protein disorder. In our study, KuA could chelate cellular iron content and decrease iron influx. Moreover, KuA could upregulate the expression of ferroportin1 and Hephaestin, downregulate the expression of DMT1, TfR, and Ferritin to maintain cellular iron homeostasis avoiding neuronal death from cellular iron deposition. Moreover, KuA could decrease the expression of a-synuclein in cells. All the results indicated that KuA protected against neurotoxin-induced PD due to the apoptosis inhibition and iron homeostasis maintaining. Conlusion: KuA treatment might represent a neuroprotective treatment for PD.
    2021,13(1), DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2020.11.001
    Abstract:
    Objective: Berberine, a cationic alkaloid first isolated in 1917, has been approved by the China Drug Administration for decades. Accumulating evidence demonstrated its antidepressant-like activities in vivo. Our previous study has shown that chronic stress leads to the upregulation of miR-34a in the hippocampus of mice. This study aims to evaluate the underlying miR-34a mediated mechanism of berberine in chronic stress-induced depression in mice. Methods: In the present study, mice were administered with berberine during chronic stress. Levels of miR-34a, dendritic density, mitochondrial morphology, and neurogenesis were assessed in the hippocampus. Subsequently, miR-34a agomir was used as a pharmacological intervention for the investigation of berberine. Results: The results showed that berberine reversed the decrease in sucrose preference and the increase in latency to feed without altering total food consumption. Furthermore, chronic stress-induced overexpression of miR-34a decreased synaptotagmin-1 and Bcl-2 levels, thereby impairing spinal morphology, mitochondria and neurogenesis. Berberine inhibited miR-34a expression, in turn restored synaptotagmin-1 and Bcl-2 levels, and thus improved spinal morphology, mitochondria and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. However, the improvements induced by berberine were totally blocked by the pretreatment of miR-34a agomir, which caused the elevation of miR-34a levels in the hippocampus. Conclusion: This finding demonstrated that miR-34a downregulation was involved in the antidepressant-like effects of berberine in mice exposed to chronic stress.
    2021,13(1), DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2020.09.004
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the cytotoxic activity of taraxerol isolated from the leaves of Pterospermum acerifolium and its EtOH extract against human breast, colon, and lung cancer cell lines and docking studies. Methods: The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by several spectroscopic methods such as 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, DEPT-135, COSY, HSQC, and HMBC. The extract and isolated compound were analyzed for cytotoxic activity on MDA-MB-231, BT-549, A-549, and SW-480 cancer cell lines by MTT assay. Molecular docking was performed on software such as Chem3D pro 12.0.2.1076, Discovery Studio Visualizer, Auto Dock Tools-1.5.6 and Auto dock vina. Results: The extract and isolated compound taraxerol both displayed excellent inhibitory activity (IC50: 80 μg/mL for extract and 160 g/mL for compound) on breast cancer cell (MDA-MB-231). The docking studies show a strong affinity with PI3K (-9.8 Kcal/mol) and mTOR (-10.0 Kcal/mol). Conclusion: The results confirm that the extract and compound exhibited strong cytotoxicity on the MDA-MB-231 cancer cell. So, the extract and the compound may be useful in human chemotherapies.
    2021,13(1), DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2020.05.012
    Abstract:
    Objective To investigate the effects of IMPX977 on long term potentiation (LTP) at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in vitro and on methyl CpG binding protein 2 (Mecp2) expression in mice cortex and hippocampus. Methods Thirty-two C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: control, olive oil (vehicle), IMPX977 low (5 mg/kg) and high (15 mg/kg) groups. Mice were administrated every other day orally for two weeks. Extracellular recording technique in vitro was used to record the effects of IMPX977 on Schaffer collateral-CA1 LTP pathway in acute mice hippocampal slices. The Mecp2 protein expression level was detected by Western blotting. Results Compared to the control group, vehicle did not alter the synaptic transmission in Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses, however, IMPX977 at concentrations of 5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg significantly enhanced fEPSP (field excitatory postsynaptic potential) slope in Schaffer collateral-CA1 pathway to (179.6 ± 17.8)% and (191.4 ± 21.4)%, individually 60 min after HFS, IMPX977 improved LTP induction significantly at Schaffer collateral-CA1 pathway at least. Also, IMPX977 significantly elevated MeCP2 protein level in cortex and hippocampus. Conclusion The effects of IMPX977 on synaptic transmission and Mecp2 protein expression provided convincing evidence that IMPX977 could be promising new drug candidates for Rett syndrome treatment.
    2021,13(1), DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2020.08.002
    Abstract:
    Objective: Depression affects people living with HIV (PLWH) compliance leading to poor control infection. Previous observational studies showed an anti-depression effect of green tea extract (GTE). The therapeutic effect of GTE on depression were investigated in PLWH receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: Fifty PLWH on ART with diagnose of mild to moderate of depression, participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and underwent 12 weeks of treatment with either 400 mg GTE capsules or placebo twice daily. The Hamilton depression scale of patients was measured before, 6 weeks and 12 weeks after treatment in two groups. The primary outcome measure was performed to evaluate the efficacy of GTE in improving depressive symptoms. Results: The mean of Hamilton score showed a significant difference between the two groups after 12 weeks (P = 0.035). Repeated measures ANOVA test showed a significant effect for time × treatment interaction on the Hamilton mean score between the two groups (P = 0.000). Conclusion: It seems the use of GTE capsules in PLWH on ART is safe and could lead to greater and more rapid improvement in depressive symptoms than placebo. Thus it can be considered as an alternative therapy for mild to moderate depression. Further studies with higher sample size and longer follow-up and comparisons with other antidepressive drugs are warranted.
    2021,13(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    The fourth China-ASEAN Training Course on traditional Medicine and Crop waste medical Research technology was successfully held on December 21 at Guangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (GXUTCM). Nanning, Guangxi. Aim at further promoting the exchange and cooperation of traditional medicine between China and ASEAN countries, teaching the forefront of academic ideas and experimental technology, and training more traditional medicine research professionals for ASEAN countries. The training course was hosted by GXUTCM, and organized by China-ASEAN Joint Laboratory for International Cooperation in Traditional Medicine Research, Collaborative Innovation Center for Research on Functional Ingredients of Agricultural Residues and Guangxi Key Laboratory of Efficacy Study on Chinese Materia Medica. The training courses were conducted "online + offline" live broadcast in multiple locations, chaired by Prof. Deng. At the opening ceremony, Leng Jing, the vice president of GXUTCM said, Since 2017, the school has successfully hosted 3 consecutive "China-ASEAN Workshop for Medicinal Study on Traditional Medicine and Agricultural Residues", and achieved good results. This year, the COVID-19 is spreading around the world. The university has given full play to the advantages of traditional medicine and actively responded to it. It has jointly obtained 7 Guangxi emergency special funds in collaboration with experts from Singapore and Thailand. She hoped that through this training, more professionals in traditional medicine research will be cultivated for ASEAN countries, and the exchanges and cooperation of traditional medicine between China and ASEAN countries will be further promoted. Academician Liu Chang-xiao, director of the China-ASEAN Joint Laboratory for International Cooperation in Traditional Medicine Research, said that since the establishment of the China-ASEAN Joint Laboratory for International Cooperation in Traditional Medicine Research, it has carried out a large number of academic exchanges, resource investigations and talent exchanges, and published Chinese and English Version "China-ASEAN Traditional Medicines", and organized experts to hold many international conferences and training courses. It is hoped that through this training course, ASEAN trainees can gain more knowledge, technology and skills, and make greater contributions to the development of traditional medicines and crop waste medicinal resources in ASEAN countries. He said ‘I would like to thank the Guangxi Autonomous Region Government, the Guangxi Science and Technology Department and the Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine for their strong support, and especially thank Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine for its contribution to organizing this workshop. The training focused on new methods and new technologies for the medicinal value research of traditional medicines and agricultural residues, carry out training on the advanced technologies including quality standards and quality control of TCMs, the mechanism of TCM prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, precision targeted metabolomics and transformational innovation of Chinese medicine, separation of new compounds, structure identification and biological activity evaluation. Specially invited professor Zhao Zhong-zhen from Hong Kong Baptist University, professor Bai Gang from Nankai University, researcher Lv Hai-tao from Shanghai Jiaotong University, professor Zhu Guo-yuan from Macau University of Science and Technology, professor Hou Xiao-tao from GXUTCM, and Dr. Tang Pei-ling, senior lecturer at the Tunku University College, to give lectures. More than 50 people from 10 ASEAN countries including Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore, Brunei, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, and Cambodia Participated in online learning, the number of students was twice as before. At the same time, it is open to teachers and students of GXUCTM and colleagues in the field. A total of more than 200 people participated in this training online, which has received positive responses!
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    2012,4(1):63-69, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2012.01.010
    [Abstract] (1609) [HTML] (0) [PDF 160.29 K] (10157)
    Abstract:
    Objective To identify and analyze the volatile constituents in the leaves and fruits of Ficus carica. Methods Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used. Results The major components detected in volatile oil of the leaves were psoralen (10.12%), β-damascenone (10.17%), benzyl alcohol (4.56%), behenic acid (4.79%), and bergapten (1.99%), etc. The major components detected in volatile oil of the fruits were furfural (10.55%), 5-methyl-2-furaldehyde (10.1%), and benzeneacetaldehyde (6.59%), etc. Conclusion A total of 121 volatile constituents are identified in the leaves and 108 in the fruits of F. carica, among which 103 constituents are identified for the first time in the leaves and 100 in the fruits. Eighteen volatile constituents are identified in both leaves and fruits.
    2012,4(3):245-251, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2012.03.012
    [Abstract] (2214) [HTML] (0) [PDF 221.06 K] (9783)
    Abstract:
    Objective Establishing a ?ngerprint method to identify the characteristic chemicals in the roots of Gentiana macrophylla and evaluate their quality. Methods RP-HPLC was developed for ?ngerprint analysis and determination of four ingredients in G. macrophylla roots from different sources. LC-ESI-TOF-MS was employed to identify the chromatographic peaks of the ?ngerprint. Results Five common peaks were identified by comparing their retention time with reference secoiridoid glucosides. Eight major peaks in chromatographic fingerprint were analyzed by on-line LC-ESI-TOF-MS. Four secoiridoid glucosides were identified based on their MS data. Conclusion The method is specific and could be served for the quality identi?cation and comprehensive evaluation of G. macrophylla.
    2010,2(4):272-288, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.04.005
    [Abstract] (2900) [HTML] (0) [PDF 307.65 K] (9747)
    Abstract:
    Callicarpa Linn. (beautyberry) is one of the major genera in Verbenaceous, about 20 of which are medicinal plants. Beautyberry, called Zizhu in China, is a generic name of those species and largely used as hemostatic medicine. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 has admitted three new crude drugs from the genus of Callicarpa Linn. including Callicarpae Macrophyllae Folium, Callicarpae Caulis et Folium, and Callicarpae Formosanae Folium for the first time since the 1977 version of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. In order to better understand these new crude drugs, we systematically described their bibliography, admission reasons, botanical identification, chemistry, and pharmacology. Several other species, out of national regulations but intensively studied and widely used, are also covered in this review.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (2046) [HTML] (0) [PDF 503.58 K] (8973)
    Abstract:
    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has developed over thousands of years and has accumulated abundant clinical experience, forming a comprehensive and unique medical system. Emerging evidence has begun to illustrate TCM as an area of important medical rediscoveries. This paper briefly introduced the concept, significance, and technology of network pharmacology based on network biology and systems biology. It focused on the theoretical system and potential prospect of TCM network applied in TCM research and development including predicting new drug targets, action mechanism, new drug discovery; evaluating pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, safety, toxicology, quality control, and bioinformatics of drugs. We also discussed the opportunities and challenges in the development and application of network pharmacology in the modernization of TCM research.
    [Abstract] (1978) [HTML] (0) [PDF 583.26 K] (8500)
    Abstract:
    Rhubarb is a perennial herb belonging to the genus Rheum L. (Polygonaceae). Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (rhubarb roots and rhizomes) is one of the most popular Chinese materia medica and has been widely used for strong laxative function. About 200 compounds with six different types of skeletons (anthraquinone, anthrone, stilbene, flavonoids, acylglucoside, and pyrone) have so far been isolated from eighteen species of the genus Rheum L. These constituents showed extensive pharmacological activities including cathartic, diuretic, anticancer, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects, as well as toxicological effects. Chemical fingerprint, LC-MS, and other analytical techniques have been used for the quality control of rhubarb. This comprehensive review summarizes the researches into the isolation, pharmacological activities, and phytochemical analysis reported since investigations began in the late 1940s. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies and clinical application of rhubarb are also discussed in present paper.
    2010,2(2):148-152, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.02.010
    [Abstract] (3139) [HTML] (0) [PDF 215.71 K] (7629)
    Abstract:
    Objective To develop an efficient method to isolate and purify the main components isoaloeresin D and aloin from Aloe vera for its industrial production. Methods High-speed counter-current chromatography was used to isolate isoaloeresin D and aloin in a one-step separation from dried crude extract of A. vera. The biphasic solvent system composed of hexane-ethyl acetate-acetone-water (0.2︰5︰1.5︰5) was used at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, while the lipophilic phase was selected as the mobile phase and the apparatus was rotated at 840 r/min. The effluent was detected at 254 nm. Results Isoaloeresin D (53.1 mg) and aloin (106.9 mg) were separated from the crude extract (384.7 mg) with the purities of 98.6% and 99.5%, respectively. Conclusion HSCCC is a powerful technique for isolation and separation of chemical composition from aloe.
    2010,2(4):250-261, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.04.003
    [Abstract] (2796) [HTML] (0) [PDF 401.07 K] (7337)
    Abstract:
    For the protection of consumers and developments of relevant industry, authentication of medicinal plants is a critical issue. This review covers various aspects of authentication methods and techniques based on molecular biology and genomics with special emphasis on molecular biology techniques including genome-based authentication, microchip-based authentication, DNA barcoding, and their applications.
    2016,8(3):196-208, DOI: 10.1016/S1674-6384(16)60043-6
    Abstract:
    Chinese Pharmacopoeia is updated every five years, of which traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is the most important part. The 2015 version completed by the 10th Pharmacopoeia Commission has come into operation since December 1, 2015. Here we introduced the revision and improvement of quality evaluation and control standards of TCMs in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (1686) [HTML] (0) [PDF 273.72 K] (7086)
    Abstract:
    Cistanches Herba, a famous traditional Chinese materia medica, has a laudatory title “desert ginseng”. According to Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2000, Cistanches Herba is the dry fleshy stem with scale-like leaves of Cistanche deserticola. In order to expand the drug source, Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2005 increased the plants in Cistanche Hoffmg. et Link (Orobanchaceae), C. tubulosa, and dry scaly leaf succulent stems were as genuine Cistanches Herba and still in use. In order to have more comprehensive understanding on Cistanches Herba, this paper focuses the reviews on the biological characteristics, chemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of Cistanches Herba, and its development prospects are looked forward. It provides the relative theoretical basis for the subsequent research work of Cistanches Herba and can be conducive to the development and utilization of Cistanches Herba.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (1712) [HTML] (0) [PDF 324.52 K] (6898)
    Abstract:
    Objective To predict the total flavonoids concentration of Aurantii Fructus fried with bran in its extraction process. Methods Ultraviolet spectrophotometry was used to determine the concentration of total flavonoids in different extraction time (t ) and solvent load (M ). Then the predicted procedure was carried out using the following data: 1) based on Ficks second law, the parameters of the kinetic model could be deduced and the equation was established; 2) Locally weighted regression (LWR) code was developed in the WEKA software environment to predict the concentration. And then we used both methods to predict the concentration of total flavonoids in new experiments. Results After comparing the predicted results with the experimental data, the LWR model had better accuracy and performance in the prediction. Conclusion LWR is applied to analyze the extraction process of Chinese herb for the first time, and it is totally fit for the extraction. LWR-based system is a more simple and accurate way to predict than the established equation. It is a good choice especially for a process which exists no clearly rules, and can be used in the real-time control during the process.
    2010,2(2):81-105, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.02.001
    [Abstract] (2747) [HTML] (0) [PDF 822.05 K] (6750)
    Abstract:
    Objective The 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (ACPC) is a natural micromolecule non-protein amino acid that exists only in plants. Despite the determination of its regulating effects on plants, several bioactivities and effects on animals or humans are still unclear. This review focuses the pharmaceutical effects,above all, the neuroprotective effects of ACPC on the cerebro- and cardiovascular system. Methods Two hundred and seventy nine studies were selected and identified from a total of 2457 references in Medline and Chemical Abstracts from 1957 to 2008. Only 38 articles on neuroprotective effects of ACPC from seven different countries qualified to be included in the analysis. Results ACPC has altogether following six general neuroprotective effects on the brain and nervous system: anti-neurotoxicity induced by NMDA, dynorphin-A, glutamate, and morphine; protection from cerebral neurological injury induced by ischemia; antidepressant and anxiolytic effects; anti-convulsion and -seizures and control of epilepsy; facilitation of spatial learning and memory; and the effect of reducing alcohol consumption. Conclusion ACPC has shown a variety of effects on plants and animals. The bioactivities and pharmaceutical effects on animals are of great significance to medical research and public health. Further clinical trials or epidemiological studies are needed to determine its effect in humans. Food intervention with ACPC-rich vegetables and fruits may be a suitable therapy for cerebro- and cardiovascular system diseases. Administration of trace exogenous ACPC could produce vegetables and fruits of rich endogenous ACPC.
    2011,3(2):150-155, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.02.011
    [Abstract] (2294) [HTML] (0) [PDF 157.86 K] (6704)
    Abstract:
    Objective Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is widely used as a spice in cooking and as a medicinal herb in traditional herbal medicine. The present study was to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ginger oil in experimental animal models. Methods The analgesic effect of the oils was evaluated by the “acetic acid” and “hot-plate” test models of pain in mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of the oil was investigated in rats, using rat paw edema induced by carrageenan, adjuvant arthritis, and vascular permeability induced by bradykinin, arachidonic acid, and histamine. Indomethacin (1 mg/kg), Aspirin (0.5 g/kg) and Dexamethasone (2.5 mg/kg) were used respectively as reference drugs for comparison. Results The ginger oil (0.25-1.0 g/kg) produced significant analgesic effect against chemically- and thermally-induced nociceptive pain stimuli in mice (P < 0.05, 0.01). And the ginger oil (0.25-1.0 g/kg) also significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema, adjuvant arthritis, and inflammatory mediators-induced vascular permeability in rats (P < 0.05, 0.001). Conclusion These findings confirm that the ginger oil can be used to treat pain and chronic inflammation such as rheumatic arthritis.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (1881) [HTML] (0) [PDF 488.37 K] (6447)
    Abstract:
    Bentysrepinine (Y101), a derivative of repensine, is a novel di-peptide structure isolated from Dichondra repens. In vitro and in vivo tests exhibited that bentysrepinine markedly inhibited DNA-HBV and cccDNA activities. The binding mode of Y101 and repensine with DNA polymerase was driven by hydrophobic interactions. This might provide novel recognition of inhibitory effect of Y101 against HBV, though its inhibition mechanism needs to be validated by bio-assay at cellular level and of polymerase activity. Preliminary docking study suggested that Y101 might be able to inhibit HIV inverse transcriptase, also have the potential to interact with DNA polymerase and HCV NS5B polymerase.
    2011,3(2):117-126, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.02.006
    [Abstract] (2706) [HTML] (0) [PDF 211.05 K] (6401)
    Abstract:
    The reports on chemical constituents of Hyoscyamus niger were summarized. The compounds include alkaloids, saponins, lignans, coumarinolignans, flavonoids, and some other nonalkaloidal compounds. TLC, HPLC, and GC were used for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of some chemical constituents in H. niger. Modern pharmacological experiments showed that H. niger had the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anticonvulsant, spasmolytic, antidiarrhoeal, antisecretory, bronchodilatory, urinary bladder relaxant, hypotensive, cardiosuppressant, vasodilator, antitumor, and feeding deterrent properties. In addition, the toxicities of this medicinal plant were also described.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (1779) [HTML] (0) [PDF 299.63 K] (6300)
    Abstract:
    The inception of network pharmacology comes from the advance in “multi-target, multi-drug” paradigm and opens up a new field for pharmaceutical science. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is well-known for its use of medicinal herb combinations to treat the functional disorders induced by diseases through a holistic view, which naturally followed the principal of network pharmacology. In this review, the methodologies of network pharmacology in TCM studies were summarized. Specifically, the methodologies for network construction and network analysis were detailed by following several TCM study cases followed. The perspectives for TCM network pharmacology were also provided.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (1680) [HTML] (0) [PDF 360.32 K] (6131)
    Abstract:
    Objective A reversed-phase HPLC method was established for the simultaneous determination of five hydrophilic and lipophilic components in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Methods Hydrophilic components including danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, and salvianolic acid B, and lipophilic components such as cryptotanshinone and tanshinone IIA, were successfully separated on a Waters Symmetry C18 reverse- phase column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm), with acetonitrile-0.5% phosphoric acid (gradient elution) as mobile phase, the detection wavelength was set at 281 nm with flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, and the column temperature was maintained at 30 °C. Results The recovery of the method was in the range of 95.1%–102.5% and the precision was less than 3% for all five analytes. All the compounds showed good linearity (R2 > 0.9990) in a relatively wide concentration range. Therefore, this HPLC method demonstrated good reproducibility, stability, and accuracy in validation studies. Conclusion Simultaneous quanti?cation of the multiple components by HPLC would be a better strategy for the quality evaluation on the roots of S. miltiorrhiza.
    2010,2(3):180-188, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.03.004
    [Abstract] (1902) [HTML] (0) [PDF 265.22 K] (5927)
    Abstract:
    The publications on the journal of Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs in Vol.40, 2009 are briefly reviewed in the categories of chemical constituents, preparations and technologies, analysis and quality control, pharmacological and clinical studies, reviews, and finally healthy principles. Some comments, especially for hot topics have been personally provided.
    2011,3(1):27-35, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.01.007
    [Abstract] (2932) [HTML] (0) [PDF 234.17 K] (5775)
    Abstract:
    Objective To study the antibacterial mechanisms of berberine and try to understand the reasons why bacteria cells difficultly resisted to it. Methods Detecting the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of bacterial cultures incubated under sub-MIC concentration of berberine, Huanglian, and Neomycin for more than 200 generations, in order to analyze the bacteria resistance. Detecting the binding kinetics of berberine to DNA, RNA, and proteins. Observing the changes in bacterial cell surface structure with scanning electron microscopy. Detecting the Ca2+ and K+ released from berberine-treated bacterial cells with atomic absorption spectrum. Detection the absorption of methyl-3H-thymine (3H-dT), 3H-uridine (3H-U), and 3H-tyrosine (3H-Tyr) into berberine-treated bacterial cells. Results MICs of bacterial cultures, growing more than 200 generations in MH medium with 1/2 MIC of berberine (BA200) or Huanglian (HA200), did not increase compared to the control, while remarkably increased in MH medium with 1/2 MIC of Neomycin (NA200). In addition, from the culture NA200 it was easy to isolate resistant mutant strains which could grow in MH medium with more than four times MIC Neomycin, but from the culture BA200 and HA200 it was difficult to isolate berberine or Huanglian mutant strains could grow in MH medium with more than four times MIC berberine or Huanglian. The binding kinetics of berberine to DNA, RNA, and proteins illustrated that berberine could easily and tightly bind to DNA and RNA, and hardly dis-bind from DNA- and RNA-berberine complexes. Berberine could easily bind to protein too, but also easily dis-bind from berberine-protein complex. The bacterial cells treated with berberine sharply decreased the absorption of 3H-dT, 3H-U, and 3H-Tyr, as the radioactive precursors of DNA, RNA, and protein biosynthesis. Berberine could damage bacterial cell surface structure, especially for Gram-negative bacteria. Ca2+ and K+ released from berberine-treated cells increased significantly compared to the control. Conclusion All of above results indicate that bacterial cells could not easily become resistant mutants to berberine. The mechanisms for the bactericidal effect of berberine include: inhibiting DNA duplication, RNA transcription, and protein biosynthesis; influencing or inhibiting enzyme activities; destructing the bacterial cell surface structure and resulting in Ca2+ and K+ released from cells. All of the berberine bactericidal mechanisms are the most essential physiological functions for a live cell, if influenced any one such function, the mutation would be lethal mutation, so that it is difficult to get berberine resistant cells. The results in this paper also prefigure that berberine and its related Chinese medicines would provide a feasible way to control antibiotic resistance problem.
    2011,3(3):186-195, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.03.004
    [Abstract] (2168) [HTML] (0) [PDF 263.73 K] (5751)
    Abstract:
    Eurycoma longifolia, also known as Tongkat Ali in Malaysia, as one of traditional herbal medicines, is used for centuries in South-East Asia. With the discovery of anticancer and anti-HIV properties, this herbal medicine has attracted great attention recently. In this review, the following information on E. longifolia, including chemistry, bioactivities, pharmacokinetics, clinical studies, and side effects and safety, was introduced. Our results, to a certain extent, will provide scientific base for commercial utilization and clearance of the Tongkat Ali products with regard to consumers’ safety.

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