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    2019,11(4):347-348, DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2019.09.003
    Abstract:
    Traditional Chinese Mmedicine (TCM) has been applied in treating various complex diseases for thousands of years, and has been widely known for its distinguished holistic therapeutic strategy. How to ensure the safety and lower the risk of toxic effects of TCM herbal formulae are of critical importance during the process of the modernization of TCM industry. Due to the complex composition of TCM herbal formulae and its sophisticated interaction between the biomolecules inside the body, there is an urgent need for systematic methodology in the in-depth investigation on TCM herbal formulae regarding its mechanism of action (MoA), which is the basis for its toxicology assessment (Y. B. Li et al., 2019; S. Liu et al., 2017) and quality control (C. X. Liu et al., 2017). As a new research paradigm for drug discovery and development, network pharmacology has aroused interests among researchers in the area of TCM since its emergence about 10 years ago (Hopkins, 2007; Li, 2007; Li et al., 2007). In particular, we proposed the new concept of “network target” (Li, 2011; Li, et al, 2011), an elementary entity for the development of TCM Network Pharmacology (TCM-NP), which offer the opportunity to describe and measure the emergence of an ON or OFF effect on the level of network modules, revealing the biological basis of both diseases and drugs by integrating multi-level omics data and temporal-spatial biomedical data with network analysis (Guo et al., 2017; Li, 2015). The network target may offer a powerful computable measurement for evaluating the complex MoA underlying the TCM compounds, herbs and formulae and thus help shift the classical “one target, one drug” research paradigm towards the new “network target, multicomponent therapeutics” strategy. It is suitable for exploring the mysteries of TCM from both the conceptual and the applicable perspective (Li & Zhang, 2013), including toxicology assessment and quality control of the TCM herbal formulae. To answer the urgent needs in the field of TCM toxicology and quality control, new concepts are continuing to be put forwards, showing compatibility with the strategy of “network target, multicomponent therapeutics”, while forming the hot research field together with network pharmacology. In this issue, two reviews (X. Y. Li et al., 2019; Wang et al., 2019) on quality marker and network toxicology will be published, discussing the new progress on these two booming research fields, and their integration potential with network pharmacology. The new concept of the quality marker (Q-marker) was first proposed by Liu et al. in 2016 (C. X. Liu et al., 2017; Liu, Guo, & Liu, 2018), establishing a valuable framework for the rational quality control of TCM. The framework emphasizes both the transitivity and traceability along the intact life-cycle of the TCM herbs, decoction-prieces and formulae. In the recent review (Wang et al., 2019), the role of network pharmacology is further demonstrated and integrated into the strategy for Q-marker prediction and application. The “effect-ingredient-target-fingerprint” is developed as the basis for network pharmacology analysis, and the predicted Q-markers based on the fingerprint are further validated both on the theoretical level of TCM compatibility rules, and also on the experimental level of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and toxicology. Network toxicology is another important concept, characterizing the interaction and regulation of potential poisonous materials through network models (Liu et al., 2015), which may lead to precise prediction of the toxic components, indication of the biomarkers, and a deeper understanding of the MoA related to the side effect. As reviewed in the recent work (X. Y. Li et al., 2019), metabolomics with the help of liquid chromatography- – mass spectrometry (LC-MS), which provide big data on endogenous metabolites, serve as a powerful method facilitating the network building and analysis. The “toxicity-target-drugs” network is built for network pharmacology analysis, while metabolomics help withcan be useful in the in-depth interrogation of the network and more accurate infer of the toxic components. There are still many theoretical, methodological, and practical challenges that need to be addressed for future developments of the current research area. With the integration of more cutting-edge assays and artificial intelligence, as well as the evolvement of the interdisciplinary research fields of TCM-NP, especially with network toxicology and Q-markers, we are expecting the fast extending of the research area, more and more successful application cases, and eventually innovative breakthroughs for both traditional and conventional medicines.
    2019,11(4):349-356, DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2019.08.003
    Abstract:
    Network pharmacology is a powerful tool to reflect the pharmacologically active effects, mechanism of action and toxic activity of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). The ingredients of TCMs, associated with quality control of TCM products, are those fundamental chemicals that exhibit biological activities. A great amount of effort has been made by scientists in that field in order to improve the quality of TCMs, though the approaches to determine their quality and the TCM theory and compatibility rules remain ambiguous. Now some methods and technologies must be applied to predict and explore the quality marker (Q-marker) for quality control, as well as to clarify the factors affecting the quality of TCM, which may give new insight into rational ground of establishment of appropriate quality control and assessment system. In this review paper, authors focus on the prediction of quality markers of TCMs by network pharmacology based on three aspects: (1) from network medicine to network pharmacology, (2) complex network system of traditional Chinese medicine, and (3) predicting TCM quality markers based on network pharmacology. Authors proposed the research pattern on network pharmacology based on biological and medical networks, and further TCM network pharmacology based on substantial basis of TCM formulae, and the idea of “effect-ingredient-target-fingerprint” to predict and recognize the TCM Q-marker was the ultimate goal. In addition, authors yet noted how to make full use of the advantages of network toxicology to provide new ideas for the toxicity study of complex TCM systems and the prediction of TCM toxicity markers.
    2019,11(4):357-363, DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2019.02.002
    Abstract:
    Network toxicology combined with metabonomics is of great significance for the study of the toxic mechanism and prediction of toxicity of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). In this study, we reviewed the application of network toxicology based on LC-MS metabolomics, mainly in the study of toxic components and the toxicity mechanism of TCMs, which provides new ideas and methods for the further study of the toxicity mechanism of TCMs.
    2019,11(4):364-368, DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2019.05.009
    Abstract:
    Objective: Dichocarpum auriculatum, an endangered perennial herb, is endemic to China and has been used as folk medicines for the treatment of cough, hepatitis, scrofula, and epilepsy. However, there is no phytochemical report on this herbal so far. For the resource development and protective importance of this endangered medicinal plant, a phytochemical study was undertaken. Methods: The chemical constituents were purified by silica gel column, Sephadex LH-20 column, and semi-preparative reversed phase HPLC. NMR and MS spectra were used for structural identification. Results: Thirteen compounds were isolated from D. auriculatum. Their structures were characterized as jatrorrhizine (1), berberine (2), steponine (3), magnoflorine (4), coclauril (5), menisdaurin (6), menisdaurilide (7), aquilegiolide (8), (6R, 9S)-3-oxo-α-ionol-β-D-glucopyranoside (9), blumenol C glucoside (10), palmitic acid (11), dibutylphthalate (12), and auriculatum A (13). Conclusion: Compound 13 is a new diester terephthalate derivative. All the compounds are obtained from the genus Dichocarpum for the first time, and compounds 9 and 10 have potential chemotaxonomic significance to the genus Dichocarpum.
    2019,11(4):369-378, DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2019.09.005
    Abstract:
    The pre-sent work was to in-ves-ti-gate the pro-tec-tive ef-fects of the aque-ous ex-tract of Gy-nura procum-bens (GPAE) against non-al-co-holic steato-hep-ati-tis (NASH) in mice and NCTC-1469 cells. Methods C57BL/?6J mice were fed with me-thio-n-ine and choline-de-fi-cient (MCD) diet and ad-min-is-tered si-mul-ta-ne-ously with GPAE (500 and 1000?mg/?kg/?d, re-spec-tively) by gav-age for six weeks. The bio-mark-ers of NASH in serum and liver were de-ter-mined. NCTC-1469 cells were pre-treated with 0.25?mmol/?L palmitic acid (PA) plus 0.5?mmol/?L oleic acid (OA) for 24?h or treated with ade-n-ovirus ex-press-ing short-hair-pin RNA against CFLAR (Ad-shCFLAR) for 24?h and then treated with GPAE (80 and 160?μg/?mL, re-spec-tively) for 24?h, and the con-tent of cel-lu-lar bio-mark-ers of NASH was de-tected. Results In mice treated with MCD, GPAE could de-crease the lev-els of serum ALT, AST, the con-tent of he-patic TG, TC and MDA, re-press the ac-tiv-i-ties and pro-tein ex-pres-sion of CYP2E1 and CYP4A and the phos-pho-ry-la-tion of JNK, in-crease the ac-tiv-i-ties of HO-1, CAT and GSH-Px, up-reg-u-late the mRNA ex-pres-sion of PPARα, FABP5, CPT1α, ACOX, SCD-1, mG-PAT, MTTP and the pro-tein ex-pres-sion of CFLAR and NRF2. In NCTC-1469 cells treated with PA and OA, GPAE could de-crease the con-tent of cel-lu-lar TG and ROS, pro-mote the up-take of 2-NBDG, up-reg-u-late the pro-tein ex-pres-sion of CFLAR and NRF2. In NCTC-1469 cells treated with Ad-shCFLAR, GPAE up-reg-u-lated the mRNA and pro-tein ex-pres-sion of CFLAR, down-reg-u-lated the phos-pho-ry-la-tion of JNK, and in-creased the pro-tein ex-pres-sion of NRF2 and pIRS1. Conclusion These re-sults in-di-cated that the ac-ti-va-tion on CFLAR-JNK path-way might be the main anti-NASH mech-a-nism of GPAE, which on the one hand pro-mote the β-ox-i-da-tion and ef-flux of fatty acids in liver, and fi-nally re-duce he-patic lipid ac-cu-mu-la-tion, on the other hand in-crease the ac-tiv-i-ties of anti-ox-i-dant en-zymes and in-hibit the ac-tiv-i-ties of ROS gen-er-a-tion en-zymes by ac-ti-vat-ing NRF2, and there-fore at-ten-u-ates he-patic ox-ida-tive stress dam-age.
    2019,11(4):379-386, DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2019.08.002
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate therapeutic mechanism in Jasminum amplexicaule (Oleaceae) and verify its main active component as quality control markers Methods: Established mouse models of diarrhea, intestinal angina, and inflammation were first used to select herb fractions with optimum efficacy, followed by an in vitro experiment to determine key targets associated with effects of J. amplexicaule extract. Further, the selected fractions were isolated and purified, its components were identified, and the obtained compounds were verified for their effects on NF-κB and iNOS. Finally, effective compounds were administered to rats, their plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated, and quality markers (QMs) reflecting therapeutic activities of J. amplexicaule were confirmed. Results: Trichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions had significant anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects. The trichloromethane fraction also reduced BDNF, p38 MAPK, p-p38 MAPK, NF-κB p65, and p-NF-κB p65 levels in the ileum in a rhubarb-induced diarrhea mouse model. Additionally, it inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB transcription and nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 macrophages, which suppressed iNOS expression. Therefore, the trichloromethane fraction was further investigated. QMs candidate selection identified 17 compounds, and results of in-vitro therapeutic validation indicated that methyl caffeate and isochlorogenic acid B had the strongest anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities. After being validated by a UHPLC-MS-MS method, concentrations of these target compounds were accurately determined in the rat plasma and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Cmax, Tmax, and T1/2 were respectively 575.35 ng/mL (2.963 nmol/mL), 0.5 h, and 0.45 h for methyl caffeate and 262.03 ng/mL (0.5034 nmol/mL), 0.25 h, and 2.03 h for isochlorogenic acid B. Because these candidate compounds exhibited favorable pharmacokinetics, they were considered as QMs of J. amplexicaule. Conclusions: The present study accurately and effectively identified QMs of J. amplexicaule that act as indicators of efficacy and quality.
    2019,11(4):387-393, DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2019.08.001
    Abstract:
    Objective: Recently, much attention has been paid to natural product-derived compounds for antidiabetic drug discovery. More recent studies are being focused on clarifying the bioactivity of plants and derived products. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-oxidant and antidiabetic activities of Clerodendrum inerme leaf extract (CILE) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Methods: C. inerme leaves were analyzed for preliminary phytochemical properties and the content of total phenolic and flavonoid were determined. In vitro antioxidant activity was measured using DPPH assay. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic model in mice was applied for in vivo study by the effect of CILE at two dose levels (343 and 686?mg/kg b.w.). Results: The results showed that C. inerme leaves contained the major constituents of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, triterpenes, and saponins. CILE exhibited the total polyphenol and flavonoid content with 120.458 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight and 4.494 mg hispidulin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. The anti-oxidant activity of CILE was expressed with IC50 = 25.28 μg/mL. CILE at the doses of 343 mg/kg and 686 mg/kg after 7 d administration exerted a decrease in plasma glucose, protected the liver, kidneys against oxidation stress via increasing glutathione content in the liver, and reduced malondialdehyde content in the liver and kidneys. Pancreatic histological analysis in diabetic mice treated with CILE also showed the pancreatic β-cells regeneration via increasing the size and number of pancreatic islets. Conclusion: These findings suggested that C. inerme leaves have potent antidiabetic and anti-oxidant activities. The results provide reliable scientific base, which is the premise for further research and development of CILE as supplements.
    2019,11(4):394-399, DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2019.09.002
    Abstract:
    Background: Growing problem of antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori, as a common cause of chronic gastritis and even stomach cancer, demands searching for novel candidates of herbal sources. Objective: This study is aimed at assessing the antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract obtained from Quercus brantii var. persica seed coat (Testa) on H. pylori isolated from gastric biopsy specimens. Methods: Such specimens were collected from 100 patients presenting with endoscopic gastroduodenal findings. Testa extracts were prepared from Persian oak forests in the province of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, IRAN. H. pylori isolates were obtained by a series of standard bacteriology tests and cell culture, then were confirmed by PCR. The activity of testa extracts towards 25 H. pylori isolates was assessed by well diffusion method, microdilution assay, and a disk diffusion assay in vitro. Results were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA analysis. Results: Aqueous extract of testa demonstrated an antimicrobial activity with zone diameters of inhibition ranged from 0 mm to 40 mm. Its inhibitory activity increased simultaneously with increasing extract concentration. The lowest MIC and MBC were both recorded as 2 μg/mL. Anti-H. pylori activity of testa extract was approximately close to tetracycline and metronidazole and less than amoxicillin. A potent extract of testa possessed significant inhibitory activity (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Testa extract is suggested as a natural therapeutic source against the gastric H. pylori infection. However, evaluating the in vivo activity of this extract is necessary too.
    2019,11(4):400-405, DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2019.03.012
    Abstract:
    Objective: Dendrobium spp., the major globally commercializing tropical orchid, has been continuously used in Chinese medicine. However, preparation and standardization of this therapeutic orchid including its clinical evidence for topical application are sparely to be exploited. Methods: Maceration of the white orchid (Dendrobium cv. Khao Sanan) in water was varied on the extraction time. The extraction yields and total polysaccharide content of the extracts were compared. The best extract condition was selected, standardized, and evaluated on safety and skin hydrating efficacy in human volunteers. Results: The extraction for 3 h gave the extract with polysaccharide content that significantly (P < 0.001) greater than the other extraction times with the following specification: yield [(35.60 ± 2.51)%], moisture content [(7.65 ± 0.21)%], total polysaccharide, sugar, reducing sugar and ash content [(72.95 ± 2.37)%, (34.38 ± 0.00)%, (16.28 ± 0.00)%, and (0.12 ± 0.00)%], pH (4.42 ± 0.01), viscosity [(15.07 ± 0.12) cps] swelling and water absorption capacities [(10.00 ± 0.00)%, (1.19 ± 0.24) g/g]. This antioxidative polysaccharide caused no skin irritation with a better skin hydrating efficacy than the untreated skin and the benchmark as examined in 22 Thai volunteers. Conclusion: White Dendrobium is ready to be supplied as a specialty ingredient with a safe and efficient profile for skin dryness therapy. This innovative application of the identified traditional Chinese medicinal herb flows in the main stream of the consumers’ preferences and demand upon natural derived products.
    2019,11(4):406-411, DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2019.05.008
    Abstract:
    Objective: Poria cocos and Polyporus umbellatus are similar medicinal fungi in traditional Chinese medicines. A method for fingerprint analysis of monosaccharide composition of polysaccharides by HPLC combined with chemometrics methods has been developed for characterization and discrimination of them in this research. Methods: The polysaccharides were extracted by decocting in water, and then completely hydrolyzed with hydrochloride. Monosaccharides in the hydrolyzates were derivatized with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) for HPLC analysis. More than 20 batches of P. cocos and P. umbellatus from different regions were analyzed. Results: The fingerprints of P. cocos showed five common characteristic peaks, which were identified by comparing with the reference substances. The five peaks corresponded to the derivatives of mannose, ribose, glucose, galactose, and fucose. At the same time, the fingerprints of P. umbellatus showed eight common characteristic peaks, of which seven were identified as the derivatives of mannose, ribose, rhamnose, glucose, galactose, xylose, and fucose. Moreover, the similarity of their fingerprints was respectively calculated by the Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of TCM published by China Pharmacopoeia Committee (Version 2004A). And the data were further processed by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). The similarity evaluation and HCA indicated that there were no significant difference in P. cocos or P. umbellatus samples from different geographical regions, but PCA was performed to characterize the difference in monosaccharide constituents between P. cocos and P. umbellatus, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed the overall correct classification rate was 100%. Conclusion: The fingerprint analysis method of monosaccharide composition of water-soluble polysaccharides can distinguish Poria cocos and Polyporus umbellatus, and can be applied for the authentication or quality control for Poria cocos and Polyporus umbellatus.
    2019,11(4):412-416, DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2019.03.013
    Abstract:
    Objective To evaluate the synergistic effect of α-mangostin with tetracycline, erythromycin, and clindamycin against bacteria involved in acne production. Methods A broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of α-mangostin and a range of antibiotics. Synergistic effects on antibacterial activity were determined based on their own MIC, and then by using a checkerboard method and a time-kill assay at 37 °C for 24 h. Results α-Mangostin exhibited antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and S. pyogenes with MIC values of 0.78, 3.13, 0.78, and 6.25 μg/mL, respectively. The results of the checkerboard assay showed that α-mangostin produced synergistic effects with tetracycline, erythromycin and clindamycin against all tested bacteria, with a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) between 0.09 and 0.32. Moreover, time-kill curve data indicated that α-mangostin increased the antibacterial activity of tetracycline, erythromycin and clindamycin. Conclusion These findings suggested that α-mangostin may be used to enhance the antibacterial activity of some antibiotics against bacteria involved in acne production.
    2019,11(4):417-422, DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2019.05.007
    Abstract:
    Objective: This study was conducted to explore the potential use of cinnamon residues (twigs and leaves) in boosting the anti-oxidant activity of yogurt. Methods: The cinnamon bark was used as the benchmark. The extracts of cinnamon bark (BW), twigs residue (TW), and leaves residue (LW) were prepared by using water, whereas the hydrolysates of cinnamon bark (BE), twigs residue (TE) and leaves residue (LE) were prepared via cellulase hydrolysis. The extracts and hydrolysates were then co-fermented respectively with the skimmed milk to produce yogurt. Results: Results obtained indicated that BW and TE yogurt possessed the highest anti-oxidant activity. In vitro digestion improved the anti-oxidant activity of yogurt significantly (P < 0.05). DPPH activity of the LW yogurt was improved drastically after in vitro digestion. Although the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoids content (TFC) of LW were lower than BW, the anti-oxidant activity of LW yogurt was not significantly different (P < 0.05) with the BW yogurt after digestion. Conclusion: This study suggested that the anti-oxidant activity of the cinnamon yogurt was influenced by complex protein-phenolic interactions.
    2019,11(4):423-428, DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2019.09.001
    Abstract:
    Objective To clarify the active constituents of the heartwoods of Caesalpinia sappan, a traditional Chinese medicine with the functions of promoting blood circulation (Huoxue in Chinese) and removing blood stasis (Quyu in Chinese). Methods The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by combination of silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, along with semipreparative HPLC. Their chemical structures were established by multiple spectroscopic methods and comparison with literature data. The in vitro antiplatelet aggregation activities were evaluated using mouse platelet induced by AYPGKF-NH2, a gold agonist of protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR4). Results Two new phenols, methyl 2-(4,4′,5′-trihydroxy-2′-(methoxymethyl) biphenyl-2-yloxy) acetate (1) and 1′-methylcaesalpin J (2), together with 24 known compounds (3-26), were isolated from the heartwoods of C. sappan. Among them, sappanchalcone (16) and brazilin (20) showed inhibitory activities against mouse platelet aggregation with IC50 values of 114.8 μmol/L and 100.8 μmol/L, respectively. Conclusion Antiplatelet compounds from C. sappan targeting at PAR4 are reported for the first time.
    2019,11(4):429-433, DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2019.09.004
    Abstract:
    Objective: Growing problem of antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori, as a common cause of chronic gastritis and even stomach cancer, demands searching for novel candidates of herbal sources. This study is aimed at assessing the antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract obtained from Quercus brantii var. persica seed coat (Testa) on H. pylori isolated from gastric biopsy specimens. Methods: Such specimens were collected from 100 patients presenting with endoscopic gastroduodenal findings. Testa extracts were prepared from Persian Oak forests in the province of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, IRAN. H. pylori isolates were obtained by a series of standard bacteriology tests and cell culture, then were confirmed by PCR. The activity of testa extracts towards 25 H. pylori isolates was assessed by well diffusion method, microdilution assay, and a disk diffusion assay in vitro. Results were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA analysis. Results: Aqueous extract of testa demonstrated an antimicrobial activity with zone diameters of inhibition ranged from 0 mm to 40 mm. Its inhibitory activity increased simultaneously with increasing extract concentration. The lowest MIC and MBC were both recorded as 2 μg/mL. Anti-H. pylori activity of testa extract was approximately close to tetracycline and metronidazole and less than amoxicillin. A potent extract of testa possessed significant inhibitory activity (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Testa extract is suggested as a natural therapeutic source against the gastric H. pylori infection. However, evaluating the in vivo activity of this extract is necessary too.
    2019,11(4):434-437, DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2019.04.007
    Abstract:
    Objective To study the bioactivity of methanolic extract of Brassica junceaon animal model of diabetes mellitus along with its effect on diabetic and metabolic parameters. Methods Diabetesmellitus was induced in rats by injecting streptozotocin (60mg/kg) intraperitonealy. Blood glucose was measured on day 3by GOD-POD method to confirm the diabetes mellitus. Rats having fasting blood glucose >250 mg/dLwere further selected for study and they were divided into four groups, control, control+streptozotocin, streptozotocin+ metformin(75mg/kg) and streptozotocin+ extract of B. juncea(450mg/kg). Each group consistedof six rats of either sex. Metformin and experimental extract were administered for 21 d. Triglyceride, cholesterol level were measured on day 21 by commercially available kit. Blood glucose was measured on days 7 and 21. Anti-oxidant potential was assessed by estimating extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) by malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) in liver, kidney, pancreas, muscle tissues on day 21. Unpaired and paired student’s t-test were applied for statistical analysis. Results The extract of B. junceashowed significant decrease in blood glucose level on day 21. The treatment group showed significant difference in oxidative stress by increasing SOD and GSH and decreasing LPO and NO activity on day 21. The treatment didn’t show statistically significant difference of cholesterol, and triglycerides level on day 21. Conclusion The study showed anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidative properties of methanolic extract of B.juncea.
    2019,11(4):438-441, DOI: 10.1016/j.chmed.2019.03.005
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the protective effect of ginsenoside Rd on the improvement of the behavior and synaptic plasticity in rats with acute plateau status. Methods: A total of 60 Wistar rats were randomly divided into the control group, the model group, and the intervention group, with 20 rats in each group. The model was established in low-pressure oxygen chamber simulating the plateau, and the intervention group was administered with ginsenoside. Electron microscope was used to observe synaptic ultrastructure of hippocampal CA1 area, and analyze the structural parameters on the Gray I synaptic interface. Morris water maze and Y electric maze experiment were used for behavioral detection. Results Compared with the control group, the number of electrical stimulation required for rat to avoid was increased in the model group, the latency in the Morris water maze was prolonged, the swimming distance was increased, and the frequency of crossing the platform was decreased. Under the electron microscope, the synaptic cleft was increased, the length of the synaptic active area was shorter, the postsynaptic density (PSD) was thinner, the flat synapse was increased, and the concave and perforated types were significantly reduced. Compared with the model group, the number of electrical stimulation required for rat to avoid was decreased in the intervention group, the latency in the Morris water maze was shortened, the swimming distance was decreased, and the frequency of crossing the platform was increased. Under the electron microscope, the synaptic cleft was decreased, PSD was thicker, the flat synapse was decreased, and the concave and perforated types were increased. Conclusion Low pressure and low oxygen environment of plateau damages the plasticity changes of the synaptic structure and function. And to a certain extent, ginsenoside Rd reverses Gray I synaptic interface structure parameters, so as to improve the behavior performance of model rats at high altitude condition.
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    2012,4(1):63-69, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2012.01.010
    [Abstract] (1485) [HTML] (0) [PDF 160.29 K] (9552)
    Abstract:
    Objective To identify and analyze the volatile constituents in the leaves and fruits of Ficus carica. Methods Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used. Results The major components detected in volatile oil of the leaves were psoralen (10.12%), β-damascenone (10.17%), benzyl alcohol (4.56%), behenic acid (4.79%), and bergapten (1.99%), etc. The major components detected in volatile oil of the fruits were furfural (10.55%), 5-methyl-2-furaldehyde (10.1%), and benzeneacetaldehyde (6.59%), etc. Conclusion A total of 121 volatile constituents are identified in the leaves and 108 in the fruits of F. carica, among which 103 constituents are identified for the first time in the leaves and 100 in the fruits. Eighteen volatile constituents are identified in both leaves and fruits.
    2012,4(3):245-251, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2012.03.012
    [Abstract] (2118) [HTML] (0) [PDF 221.06 K] (9346)
    Abstract:
    Objective Establishing a ?ngerprint method to identify the characteristic chemicals in the roots of Gentiana macrophylla and evaluate their quality. Methods RP-HPLC was developed for ?ngerprint analysis and determination of four ingredients in G. macrophylla roots from different sources. LC-ESI-TOF-MS was employed to identify the chromatographic peaks of the ?ngerprint. Results Five common peaks were identified by comparing their retention time with reference secoiridoid glucosides. Eight major peaks in chromatographic fingerprint were analyzed by on-line LC-ESI-TOF-MS. Four secoiridoid glucosides were identified based on their MS data. Conclusion The method is specific and could be served for the quality identi?cation and comprehensive evaluation of G. macrophylla.
    2010,2(4):272-288, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.04.005
    [Abstract] (2823) [HTML] (0) [PDF 307.65 K] (9263)
    Abstract:
    Callicarpa Linn. (beautyberry) is one of the major genera in Verbenaceous, about 20 of which are medicinal plants. Beautyberry, called Zizhu in China, is a generic name of those species and largely used as hemostatic medicine. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 has admitted three new crude drugs from the genus of Callicarpa Linn. including Callicarpae Macrophyllae Folium, Callicarpae Caulis et Folium, and Callicarpae Formosanae Folium for the first time since the 1977 version of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. In order to better understand these new crude drugs, we systematically described their bibliography, admission reasons, botanical identification, chemistry, and pharmacology. Several other species, out of national regulations but intensively studied and widely used, are also covered in this review.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (1938) [HTML] (0) [PDF 503.58 K] (8134)
    Abstract:
    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has developed over thousands of years and has accumulated abundant clinical experience, forming a comprehensive and unique medical system. Emerging evidence has begun to illustrate TCM as an area of important medical rediscoveries. This paper briefly introduced the concept, significance, and technology of network pharmacology based on network biology and systems biology. It focused on the theoretical system and potential prospect of TCM network applied in TCM research and development including predicting new drug targets, action mechanism, new drug discovery; evaluating pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, safety, toxicology, quality control, and bioinformatics of drugs. We also discussed the opportunities and challenges in the development and application of network pharmacology in the modernization of TCM research.
    [Abstract] (1903) [HTML] (0) [PDF 583.26 K] (7615)
    Abstract:
    Rhubarb is a perennial herb belonging to the genus Rheum L. (Polygonaceae). Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (rhubarb roots and rhizomes) is one of the most popular Chinese materia medica and has been widely used for strong laxative function. About 200 compounds with six different types of skeletons (anthraquinone, anthrone, stilbene, flavonoids, acylglucoside, and pyrone) have so far been isolated from eighteen species of the genus Rheum L. These constituents showed extensive pharmacological activities including cathartic, diuretic, anticancer, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects, as well as toxicological effects. Chemical fingerprint, LC-MS, and other analytical techniques have been used for the quality control of rhubarb. This comprehensive review summarizes the researches into the isolation, pharmacological activities, and phytochemical analysis reported since investigations began in the late 1940s. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies and clinical application of rhubarb are also discussed in present paper.
    2010,2(4):250-261, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.04.003
    [Abstract] (2736) [HTML] (0) [PDF 401.07 K] (6395)
    Abstract:
    For the protection of consumers and developments of relevant industry, authentication of medicinal plants is a critical issue. This review covers various aspects of authentication methods and techniques based on molecular biology and genomics with special emphasis on molecular biology techniques including genome-based authentication, microchip-based authentication, DNA barcoding, and their applications.
    2010,2(2):81-105, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.02.001
    [Abstract] (2672) [HTML] (0) [PDF 822.05 K] (6286)
    Abstract:
    Objective The 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (ACPC) is a natural micromolecule non-protein amino acid that exists only in plants. Despite the determination of its regulating effects on plants, several bioactivities and effects on animals or humans are still unclear. This review focuses the pharmaceutical effects,above all, the neuroprotective effects of ACPC on the cerebro- and cardiovascular system. Methods Two hundred and seventy nine studies were selected and identified from a total of 2457 references in Medline and Chemical Abstracts from 1957 to 2008. Only 38 articles on neuroprotective effects of ACPC from seven different countries qualified to be included in the analysis. Results ACPC has altogether following six general neuroprotective effects on the brain and nervous system: anti-neurotoxicity induced by NMDA, dynorphin-A, glutamate, and morphine; protection from cerebral neurological injury induced by ischemia; antidepressant and anxiolytic effects; anti-convulsion and -seizures and control of epilepsy; facilitation of spatial learning and memory; and the effect of reducing alcohol consumption. Conclusion ACPC has shown a variety of effects on plants and animals. The bioactivities and pharmaceutical effects on animals are of great significance to medical research and public health. Further clinical trials or epidemiological studies are needed to determine its effect in humans. Food intervention with ACPC-rich vegetables and fruits may be a suitable therapy for cerebro- and cardiovascular system diseases. Administration of trace exogenous ACPC could produce vegetables and fruits of rich endogenous ACPC.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (1679) [HTML] (0) [PDF 324.52 K] (6261)
    Abstract:
    Objective To predict the total flavonoids concentration of Aurantii Fructus fried with bran in its extraction process. Methods Ultraviolet spectrophotometry was used to determine the concentration of total flavonoids in different extraction time (t ) and solvent load (M ). Then the predicted procedure was carried out using the following data: 1) based on Ficks second law, the parameters of the kinetic model could be deduced and the equation was established; 2) Locally weighted regression (LWR) code was developed in the WEKA software environment to predict the concentration. And then we used both methods to predict the concentration of total flavonoids in new experiments. Results After comparing the predicted results with the experimental data, the LWR model had better accuracy and performance in the prediction. Conclusion LWR is applied to analyze the extraction process of Chinese herb for the first time, and it is totally fit for the extraction. LWR-based system is a more simple and accurate way to predict than the established equation. It is a good choice especially for a process which exists no clearly rules, and can be used in the real-time control during the process.
    2011,3(2):150-155, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.02.011
    [Abstract] (2218) [HTML] (0) [PDF 157.86 K] (6014)
    Abstract:
    Objective Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is widely used as a spice in cooking and as a medicinal herb in traditional herbal medicine. The present study was to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ginger oil in experimental animal models. Methods The analgesic effect of the oils was evaluated by the “acetic acid” and “hot-plate” test models of pain in mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of the oil was investigated in rats, using rat paw edema induced by carrageenan, adjuvant arthritis, and vascular permeability induced by bradykinin, arachidonic acid, and histamine. Indomethacin (1 mg/kg), Aspirin (0.5 g/kg) and Dexamethasone (2.5 mg/kg) were used respectively as reference drugs for comparison. Results The ginger oil (0.25-1.0 g/kg) produced significant analgesic effect against chemically- and thermally-induced nociceptive pain stimuli in mice (P < 0.05, 0.01). And the ginger oil (0.25-1.0 g/kg) also significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema, adjuvant arthritis, and inflammatory mediators-induced vascular permeability in rats (P < 0.05, 0.001). Conclusion These findings confirm that the ginger oil can be used to treat pain and chronic inflammation such as rheumatic arthritis.
    2011,3(2):117-126, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.02.006
    [Abstract] (2640) [HTML] (0) [PDF 211.05 K] (5954)
    Abstract:
    The reports on chemical constituents of Hyoscyamus niger were summarized. The compounds include alkaloids, saponins, lignans, coumarinolignans, flavonoids, and some other nonalkaloidal compounds. TLC, HPLC, and GC were used for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of some chemical constituents in H. niger. Modern pharmacological experiments showed that H. niger had the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anticonvulsant, spasmolytic, antidiarrhoeal, antisecretory, bronchodilatory, urinary bladder relaxant, hypotensive, cardiosuppressant, vasodilator, antitumor, and feeding deterrent properties. In addition, the toxicities of this medicinal plant were also described.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (1652) [HTML] (0) [PDF 273.72 K] (5852)
    Abstract:
    Cistanches Herba, a famous traditional Chinese materia medica, has a laudatory title “desert ginseng”. According to Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2000, Cistanches Herba is the dry fleshy stem with scale-like leaves of Cistanche deserticola. In order to expand the drug source, Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2005 increased the plants in Cistanche Hoffmg. et Link (Orobanchaceae), C. tubulosa, and dry scaly leaf succulent stems were as genuine Cistanches Herba and still in use. In order to have more comprehensive understanding on Cistanches Herba, this paper focuses the reviews on the biological characteristics, chemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of Cistanches Herba, and its development prospects are looked forward. It provides the relative theoretical basis for the subsequent research work of Cistanches Herba and can be conducive to the development and utilization of Cistanches Herba.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (1844) [HTML] (0) [PDF 488.37 K] (5820)
    Abstract:
    Bentysrepinine (Y101), a derivative of repensine, is a novel di-peptide structure isolated from Dichondra repens. In vitro and in vivo tests exhibited that bentysrepinine markedly inhibited DNA-HBV and cccDNA activities. The binding mode of Y101 and repensine with DNA polymerase was driven by hydrophobic interactions. This might provide novel recognition of inhibitory effect of Y101 against HBV, though its inhibition mechanism needs to be validated by bio-assay at cellular level and of polymerase activity. Preliminary docking study suggested that Y101 might be able to inhibit HIV inverse transcriptase, also have the potential to interact with DNA polymerase and HCV NS5B polymerase.
    2010,2(2):148-152, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.02.010
    [Abstract] (3042) [HTML] (0) [PDF 215.71 K] (5769)
    Abstract:
    Objective To develop an efficient method to isolate and purify the main components isoaloeresin D and aloin from Aloe vera for its industrial production. Methods High-speed counter-current chromatography was used to isolate isoaloeresin D and aloin in a one-step separation from dried crude extract of A. vera. The biphasic solvent system composed of hexane-ethyl acetate-acetone-water (0.2︰5︰1.5︰5) was used at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, while the lipophilic phase was selected as the mobile phase and the apparatus was rotated at 840 r/min. The effluent was detected at 254 nm. Results Isoaloeresin D (53.1 mg) and aloin (106.9 mg) were separated from the crude extract (384.7 mg) with the purities of 98.6% and 99.5%, respectively. Conclusion HSCCC is a powerful technique for isolation and separation of chemical composition from aloe.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (1736) [HTML] (0) [PDF 299.63 K] (5684)
    Abstract:
    The inception of network pharmacology comes from the advance in “multi-target, multi-drug” paradigm and opens up a new field for pharmaceutical science. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is well-known for its use of medicinal herb combinations to treat the functional disorders induced by diseases through a holistic view, which naturally followed the principal of network pharmacology. In this review, the methodologies of network pharmacology in TCM studies were summarized. Specifically, the methodologies for network construction and network analysis were detailed by following several TCM study cases followed. The perspectives for TCM network pharmacology were also provided.
    2010,2(3):180-188, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2010.03.004
    [Abstract] (1848) [HTML] (0) [PDF 265.22 K] (5532)
    Abstract:
    The publications on the journal of Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs in Vol.40, 2009 are briefly reviewed in the categories of chemical constituents, preparations and technologies, analysis and quality control, pharmacological and clinical studies, reviews, and finally healthy principles. Some comments, especially for hot topics have been personally provided.
    2011,3(1):27-35, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.01.007
    [Abstract] (2847) [HTML] (0) [PDF 234.17 K] (5156)
    Abstract:
    Objective To study the antibacterial mechanisms of berberine and try to understand the reasons why bacteria cells difficultly resisted to it. Methods Detecting the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of bacterial cultures incubated under sub-MIC concentration of berberine, Huanglian, and Neomycin for more than 200 generations, in order to analyze the bacteria resistance. Detecting the binding kinetics of berberine to DNA, RNA, and proteins. Observing the changes in bacterial cell surface structure with scanning electron microscopy. Detecting the Ca2+ and K+ released from berberine-treated bacterial cells with atomic absorption spectrum. Detection the absorption of methyl-3H-thymine (3H-dT), 3H-uridine (3H-U), and 3H-tyrosine (3H-Tyr) into berberine-treated bacterial cells. Results MICs of bacterial cultures, growing more than 200 generations in MH medium with 1/2 MIC of berberine (BA200) or Huanglian (HA200), did not increase compared to the control, while remarkably increased in MH medium with 1/2 MIC of Neomycin (NA200). In addition, from the culture NA200 it was easy to isolate resistant mutant strains which could grow in MH medium with more than four times MIC Neomycin, but from the culture BA200 and HA200 it was difficult to isolate berberine or Huanglian mutant strains could grow in MH medium with more than four times MIC berberine or Huanglian. The binding kinetics of berberine to DNA, RNA, and proteins illustrated that berberine could easily and tightly bind to DNA and RNA, and hardly dis-bind from DNA- and RNA-berberine complexes. Berberine could easily bind to protein too, but also easily dis-bind from berberine-protein complex. The bacterial cells treated with berberine sharply decreased the absorption of 3H-dT, 3H-U, and 3H-Tyr, as the radioactive precursors of DNA, RNA, and protein biosynthesis. Berberine could damage bacterial cell surface structure, especially for Gram-negative bacteria. Ca2+ and K+ released from berberine-treated cells increased significantly compared to the control. Conclusion All of above results indicate that bacterial cells could not easily become resistant mutants to berberine. The mechanisms for the bactericidal effect of berberine include: inhibiting DNA duplication, RNA transcription, and protein biosynthesis; influencing or inhibiting enzyme activities; destructing the bacterial cell surface structure and resulting in Ca2+ and K+ released from cells. All of the berberine bactericidal mechanisms are the most essential physiological functions for a live cell, if influenced any one such function, the mutation would be lethal mutation, so that it is difficult to get berberine resistant cells. The results in this paper also prefigure that berberine and its related Chinese medicines would provide a feasible way to control antibiotic resistance problem.
    2011,3(3):186-195, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.03.004
    [Abstract] (2104) [HTML] (0) [PDF 263.73 K] (5053)
    Abstract:
    Eurycoma longifolia, also known as Tongkat Ali in Malaysia, as one of traditional herbal medicines, is used for centuries in South-East Asia. With the discovery of anticancer and anti-HIV properties, this herbal medicine has attracted great attention recently. In this review, the following information on E. longifolia, including chemistry, bioactivities, pharmacokinetics, clinical studies, and side effects and safety, was introduced. Our results, to a certain extent, will provide scientific base for commercial utilization and clearance of the Tongkat Ali products with regard to consumers’ safety.
    [Abstract] (2849) [HTML] (0) [PDF 469.82 K] (5010)
    Abstract:
    This review is briefly to recall the history of research and development (R&D) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and to discuss the challenges of Chinese traditional and herbal medicines (CTHM) facing the modern science and technology. The R&D of CTHM is thought to be an important pathway for new drug discovery. Since1949, about 140 approved new drugs have been developed, among which about 80 originated directly or indirectly from medicinal plants. CTHM has gained interest from the international medical, biomedical, and pharmaceutical institutions as a valuable source of potential medicines. For the modernization of CMM and innovative research of CTHM, there are following challenges to be faced: (1) to evaluate the efficacy, pharmacological properties, action mechanism, and active chemical constituents; (2) to develop new methodologies for the quality and safety of CTHM; (3) to apply new “-omics” techniques to accelerate drug discoveries developed from CTHM; and (4) to apply international practices including good agricultural practice, good manufacturing practice, good laboratory practice, and good clinical practice in the R&D of CTHM.
    2015,7(), DOI:
    [Abstract] (1447) [HTML] (0) [PDF 454.86 K] (4950)
    Abstract:
    Objective To elucidate the chemical substance of Xueshuantong (XST) Lyophilized Powder and primarily disclose the chemical difference between XST and Panax notoginseng roots. Methods Liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MSn) was used to profile the saponins in XST and P. notoginseng. Structural elucidation was based on spectral analyses of negative and positive ESI-MS3 data, and the compare of the retention behaviors. Results The optimized LC-MS profiling approach enabled well resolution of major saponins. The negative mode ESI-MS3 fragmentation gave diagnostic information on the nature (neutral loss 162 Da for Glc, 146 Da for Rha, and 132 Da for a pentose) and sequence (priority: terminal > inner) of sugars and sapogenins (m/z 475 for protopanaxatriol; m/z 459 for protopanaxadiol), while the intact glycosyl portion could be characterized by characteristic Z0α+, Cnα+, and Cnβ+ (n = 2 or 3) obtained in the positive mode. Ultimately, totally 30 saponins were characterized from XST. Compared with the roots of P. notoginseng, three malonyl-ginsenosides, ginsenoside Rd, and gyponoside XVII (or its isomer) were almost undetectable, and showed potential significance for their differentiation. Conclusion The established LC-MS profiling approach is powerful for the chemical analysis of P. notoginseng and its preparations such as XST.

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