Mineral Chinese medicine (MCM) is an important part of Chinese medicine system. For a long time, compared with the research on plant and animal Chinese medicine, the speed of MCM research and innovation has been slowed due to a variety of reasons, such as complex disciplines involved in MCM, lack of interdisciplinary talents with knowledge of geology and Chinese medicine, and great difficulty in research. The overall performance is obviously unbalanced and inadequate. There is a lack of systematic research on the market circulation and clinical application of MCM from ancient herbal works to today, and the historical change process is unclear. This paper systematically investigated and studied the concept and classification of mineral drugs, as well as the records, circulation and clinical application of MCM involved in ancient herbal works, modern published MCM monographs, major pharmaceutical works, different versions of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, professional market of Chinese medicinal materials, production enterprises of Chinese medicinal slices and medical establishments. The historical changes of MCM in China are basically clarified. The main problems of MCM and their research and development suggestions were discussed. The purpose of this paper is to provide basic reference materials for the formulation of relevant policies such as "inheritance essence, cultural inheritance and innovation" of MCM, strategic research plan of MCM modernization and development plan of MCM resource industry in China.