目的 探究铁皮石斛Dendrobium officinale对抗生素诱导小鼠肠道菌群紊乱的改善作用。方法 采用UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS对高压灭菌前后的铁皮石斛新鲜榨汁成分进行分析。C57小鼠随机分为对照组、模型组、铁皮石斛新鲜榨汁组和铁皮石斛高压灭菌榨汁组，抗生素干预7 d后给药14 d，收集粪便，另取铁皮石斛鲜品，用Illumina MiSeq高通量测序检测铁皮石斛内生细菌和各组小鼠肠道的菌群结构。结果 高压灭菌前后铁皮石斛新鲜榨汁的共有成分为14种，占总成分的95.84%。非度量多维标度分析发现铁皮石斛新鲜榨汁组小鼠肠道菌群结构与对照组小鼠肠道菌群更相似，但铁皮石斛高压灭菌榨汁对抗生素诱导小鼠肠道菌群紊乱无明显作用；与模型组比较，铁皮石斛新鲜榨汁组优势菌群乳酸杆菌属Lactobacillus、双歧杆菌属Bifidobacterium的丰度显著升高，有害菌群脱硫弧菌属Desulfovibrio的丰度显著降低。结论 铁皮石斛通过提高有益菌丰度和降低有害菌群丰度来改善抗生素诱导小鼠肠道菌群紊乱。
Objective To explore the improvement of Dendrobium officinale on antibiotic-induced gut microbiota disturbance in mice. Methods UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS was used to analyze the fresh juice components of D. officinale before and after autoclaving. C57 mice were randomly divided into control group, model group, D. officinale fresh juice group and D. officinale high pressure sterilization juice group, after 7 d of antibiotic intervention, mice were administered for 14 d, then the feces were collected. In addition, fresh D. officinale samples were collected, and the structures of D. officinale endophytic bacteria and gut microbiota of mice were detected by Illumina MiSeq high throughput sequencing. Results There were 14 components in fresh juice of D. officinale before and after autoclaving, accounting for 95.84% of the total components. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the gut microbiota structure of mice in D. officinale fresh group was similar with that in control group, but D. officinale high pressure sterilization juice group had no obvious effect on the intestinal flora disorder induced by antibiotics in mice. Compared with model group, the abundance of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were significantly increased in dominant flora of D. officinale fresh juice group, while the abundance of Desulfovibrio was significantly decreased in harmful bacteria group. Conclusion D. officinale can improve the antibiotic-induced gut microbiota disturbance in mice by increasing the abundance of beneficial bacteria and reducing the abundance of harmful bacteria while D. officinale endophytic bacteria may play a key role in the process.