As a traditional Chinese medicine with ethnic characteristics, Resina Draconis has the functions of activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis, reducing inflammation and analgesia, promoting muscle and healing sores, also known as “domestic Draconis Sanguis” with a long history of usage. Modern research has shown that Resina Draconis has pharmacological effects in protecting the cardiovascular and nervous systems, anti-tumor activity, and promoting tissue healing. The active ingredients of Resina Draconis are mainly phenols, terpenoids and steroids, such as pterostilbene, loureirin A, loureirin B and resveratrol. A large number of studies have provided substantial evidence that Resina Draconis can effectively intervene in the ischemia-reperfusion injury of brain, heart, kidneys and other vital organs, which is of great significance for clinical application. In the review, the pharmacological effects and possible mechanisms of Resina Draconis in anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammatory properties, neuroprotection, protection of the blood-brain barrier, and anti-thrombotic were systematically summarized based on both domestic and foreign studies in recent 10 years. It is expected to provide a reference for the future development of Resina Draconis in the field of cerebral ischemia prevention and treatment to facilitate its clinical application.