栀子Gardeniae Fructus是茜草科植物Gardenia jasminoides的果实，属于药食同源中药，其使用范围广、用量大，具有许多显著的药理作用。国内外研究表明栀子提取物具有抗炎、抗血栓、抗病毒、抗肿瘤等功效，且对肝脏、胃肠道、心血管、神经、软组织都具有保护作用；然而毒性研究提示栀子的某些提取物有损伤肝、肾、肠道的风险，且具备基因毒性。通过对栀子的相关文献资料进行归纳总结，从化学成分、药理作用、毒性作用、机制研究及临床应用等方面阐述栀子及其主要化学成分的生物活性和毒性研究，同时对栀子未来的研究进行展望，为栀子的相关研究和开发提供参考。
Zhizi (Gardeniae Fructus) is the fruit of Rubiaceae plant Gardenia jasminoides. It is known as a Chinese medicine which has the homology of medicine and food with wide application and large comsumption, meanwhile, it has excellent pharmacological effects. Recent studies over the world have focused on the anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, anti-viral and anti-tumor advantages of Gardeniae Fructus extracts, and the protective effects of Gardeniae Fructus extracts on liver, gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular, nerve and soft tissue have also been confirmed. However, toxicity studies have suggested that some ingredients of Gardeniae Fructus are risky to liver, kidney and intestinal health, and genotoxicity occurs to some extent. This paper elaborated the biological activity and toxicity of Gardeniae Fructus and its main chemical components from the aspects of chemical composition, pharmacological effects, toxic effects, mechanism research, and clinical applications by summarizing the relevant literature of Gardeniae Fructus. Meanwhile, the future research of Gardeniae Fructus was looked ahead, which provided references for the research and application on Gardeniae Fructus.