目的 观察何首乌醇提物对大鼠肝脏的毒性作用，并探讨其可能的毒性机制。方法 SD大鼠连续6周ig给予生、制何首乌醇提物（10、20 g生药/kg），观察动物一般状况、体质量变化；给药结束时检测血清生化指标，测定肝脏质量并计算肝脏系数，进行肝脏组织病理学检查；提取肝脏线粒体测定呼吸链复合物Ⅰ活性，透射电镜观察肝脏线粒体结构。结果 生、制何首乌醇提物连续ig给药6周可导致大鼠出现腹泻、体质量增长缓慢等表现；对丙氨酸氨基转移酶（ALT）、天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶（AST）等生化指标和肝脏系数无明显影响；使大鼠肝脏出现轻度炎细胞浸润、肝细胞片状坏死、纤维增生、空泡等组织病理学变化；能降低大鼠肝脏线粒体呼吸链复合物Ⅰ活性，透射电镜下可见个别线粒体嵴紊乱、断裂或消失，出现空泡。结论 生、制何首乌醇提物均可引起大鼠肝脏一定程度的损伤，其肝毒性机制可能与影响肝脏线粒体的结构和电子传递链功能有关。
Objective To observe the hepatotoxicity of alcohol extracts of Polygonum multiflorum in rats, and to further study the possible mechanisms of hepatotoxicity.Methods SD rats were given alcohol extracts of raw or processed Polygonum multiflorum (10, 20 g/kg) for 6 weeks, the general conditions of rats and body weight were observed. At study termination, the serum level of biochemical indexes were detected, the liver coefficient was calculated, and light microscopic observations of liver were conducted. At the same time, the activity of liver mitochondrial respiratory chain complex Ⅰ was measured and the structure of liver mitochondrion was observed by transmission electron microscope. Results Alcohol extracts of raw and processed Polygonum multiflorum both could induce diarrhea in rats and inhibit growth of rats, but biochemical indexes and liver coefficient showed no obvious changes. Mild inflammation cells infiltration, laminar necrosis of liver cells, fibroplasia and vacuoles were observed under light microscope. Compared with the control group, the activity of liver mitochondrial respiratory chain complex Ⅰ was decreased. Disruption or disappearance of mitochondrial crista were observerd under transmission electron microscope. Conclusion Alcohol extracts of raw and processed Polygonum multiflorum both could induce hepatotoxicity in rats to some degree, impairment of liver mitochondrial structure and mitochondrial respiratory chain function may be one of the mechanisms.