In clinical practice, hypoxia is the most common factor that causes organism injury or even leads to organism death. Therefore, research workers have established a series of hypoxic injury models, such as in vitro cellular models, by liquid paraffin closure method, anaerobic bag gas production method, mixed gas culture method and other methods to establish hypoxic injury models. On animal models such as rat and mouse and zebrafish models, hypoxic injury models were established by mixed gas incubation method, sodium-lime absorption method, arterial ligation method and chemical reagent treatment. And the anti-hypoxic drugs were screened and evaluated by detecting the survival time, enzymatic indexes, blood gas indexes, histopathological sections and changes of hypoxia-related factors after hypoxia. Research progress of hypoxic injury model and anti-hypoxic drug screening were summarized, in order to provide theoretical basis and reference for clinical treatment of hypoxia.