Quantitative analysis of multi-components with a single marker (QAMS) is a method for detecting multiple components by using an internal reference substance. Due to its advantage of selectivity, economy, and accuracy, QAMS has been widely used in the content determination of chemical drugs, traditional Chinese medicine and their preparations. This article summarizes the technical establishment process of QAMS method. The review also encompasses the research progress of QAMS method in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemical drugs, chemicals drugs in traditional Chinese medicine, chemical drug compositions illegally added in traditional Chinese medicines and drug impurities in recent years. Moreover, the prospects of its applications are also discussed.