Actinidia arguta belonging to Actinidiaceae, Actinidia Lindl. is perennial defoliation vine plant. It is most widely distributed in the Three Provinces in Northeast of China. All the fruit, root, and stem leaf of A. arguta can be used as medicine, with pharmacological activities of anti-tumour, radioresistance, improving immunity, and so on. The researches indicate that whole plant of A. arguta contains volatile oil, triterpenoids, flavonoid, polysaccharide, etc. In this paper, it provides a summarizing of chemical composition such as volatile oil, triterpenoids, flavonoid extracted from A. arguta for the past few years and pharmacological activities of A. arguta including anti-tumour, radioresistance, improving immunity, anti-aging, curing allergic dermatitis, anti-asthma, etc. The survey offers theoretical basis to the further exploiture and use of A. arguta.