Abstract：Venous thromboembolism (VTE ) has been estimated to be the third most common vascular disorder after acute coronary syndromes and stroke, with a serious health hazard, resulting in high mortality, morbidity, and expenditures. With further understanding on the mechanism for blood coagulation, thrombosis, VTE, and application of classic anticoagulant drugs such as unfractionated heparin, low molecular heparin, and Warfarin, the novel anticoagulants based on coagulation factor-target e.g. Ⅹa, Ⅱa, Ⅸa, and TF/Ⅶa had markedly progressed in research and development. While, the ideal standard of anticoagulant drugs makes higher request for research and development of novel anticoagulants, the selection to target, benefit and risk, evaluation for effication and toxicity merit more attention. The aetiology and pathogenesis of VTE, classic anticoagulant drugs, and new trends and cautions of research and development in the novel anticoagulant drugs are reviewed in this paper.